phase transitions primers in complex systems

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Phase Transitions

Author : Ricard V. Solé
ISBN : 9781400838929
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 50 MB
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Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of life, viral replication, epidemics, language evolution, and the emergence and breakdown of societies. Written at an undergraduate mathematical level, this book provides the essential theoretical tools and foundations required to develop basic models to explain collective phase transitions for a wide variety of ecosystems.

Complex And Adaptive Dynamical Systems

Author : Claudius Gros
ISBN : 9783319162652
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 47 MB
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This primer offers readers an introduction to the central concepts that form our modern understanding of complex and emergent behavior, together with detailed coverage of accompanying mathematical methods. All calculations are presented step by step and are easy to follow. This new fourth edition has been fully reorganized and includes new chapters, figures and exercises. The core aspects of modern complex system sciences are presented in the first chapters, covering network theory, dynamical systems, bifurcation and catastrophe theory, chaos and adaptive processes, together with the principle of self-organization in reaction-diffusion systems and social animals. Modern information theoretical principles are treated in further chapters, together with the concept of self-organized criticality, gene regulation networks, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase transitions and the cognitive system approach to the brain. Technical course prerequisites are the standard mathematical tools for an advanced undergraduate course in the natural sciences or engineering. Each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for further reading, and the solutions to all exercises are provided in the last chapter. From the reviews of previous editions: This is a very interesting introductory book written for a broad audience of graduate students in natural sciences and engineering. It can be equally well used both for teac hing and self-education. Very well structured and every topic is illustrated with simple and motivating examples. This is a true guidebook to the world of complex nonlinear phenomena. (Ilya Pavlyukevich, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1146, 2008) Claudius Gros’ Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems: A Primer is a welcome addition to the literature. A particular strength of the book is its emphasis on analytical techniques for studying complex systems. (David P. Feldman, Physics Today, July, 2009).

Artificial War

Author : Andrew Ilachinski
ISBN : 9812388346
Genre : History
File Size : 44. 27 MB
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Military conflicts, particularly land combat, possess thecharacteristics of complex adaptive systems: combat forces arecomposed of a large number of nonlinearly interacting parts and areorganized in a dynamic command-and-control network; local action, which often appears disordered, self-organizes into long-range order;military conflicts, by their nature, proceed far from equilibrium;military forces adapt to a changing combat environment; and there isno master voice that dictates the actions of every soldier (i

Particle Physics

Author : Necia Grant Cooper
ISBN : 0521347807
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 75 MB
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This book explains the emergence of a profoundly new understanding of the fundamental forces of Nature.

A Concise Introduction To The Statistical Physics Of Complex Systems

Author : Eric Bertin
ISBN : 3642239234
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 94 MB
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This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics. Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict the macroscopic (or collective) behavior of the system considered from the microscopic laws ruling the dynamics of the individual ‘entities’. These two goals are, to some extent, also shared by what is nowadays called ‘complex systems science’ and for these reasons, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered as among the simplest examples of complex systems—allowing in addition a rather well developed mathematical treatment.

Viruses As Complex Adaptive Systems

Author : Ricard V. Solé
ISBN : 0691158843
File Size : 41. 70 MB
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How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Solé and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.

Aggregation Phenomena In Complex Systems

Author : Jürn Schmelzer
ISBN : UVA:X004270657
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 52. 36 MB
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Aggregation phenomena such as the formation of droplets at the gas-liquid phase transition play a major role in a variety of processes in nature and technology. This comprehensive text introduces the reader to the physics of aggregation phenomena. The first part gives a brief survey of the physics of highly nonlinear, complex systems and the basic methods of their description. Different analytical theories (nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition etc.) are discussed in detail, and an overview on computer simulation methods (stochastic approaches, Monte Carlo methods, cellular automata models) of aggregation phenomena is presented. A separate chapter is devoted to the concepts of self similarity and self-organized criticality. The second part presents applications to different specific processes (nucleation and growth in expanding matter, multifragmentation in nuclear collisions, evolution of the element size distribution in the early universe, segregation in porous materials, spinodal decomposition in adiabatically isolated systems, aggregation in traffic flow). An inspiring reading, this volume serves also as a source of recent information in the highly exciting and rapidly developing field of the analysis of complex systems.

Protein Folding Misfolding And Aggregation

Author : Victor Muñoz
ISBN : 9780854042579
File Size : 49. 33 MB
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This unique book covers all the modern approaches and the many advances experienced in the field of protein folding and aggregation during the last 10 years.

Spin Glasses And Complexity

Author : Daniel L. Stein
ISBN : 9780691147338
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 73. 78 MB
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Spin glasses are disordered magnetic systems that have led to the development of mathematical tools with an array of real-world applications, from airline scheduling to neural networks. Spin Glasses and Complexity offers the most concise, engaging, and accessible introduction to the subject, fully explaining what spin glasses are, why they are important, and how they are opening up new ways of thinking about complexity. This one-of-a-kind guide to spin glasses begins by explaining the fundamentals of order and symmetry in condensed matter physics and how spin glasses fit into--and modify--this framework. It then explores how spin-glass concepts and ideas have found applications in areas as diverse as computational complexity, biological and artificial neural networks, protein folding, immune response maturation, combinatorial optimization, and social network modeling. Providing an essential overview of the history, science, and growing significance of this exciting field, Spin Glasses and Complexity also features a forward-looking discussion of what spin glasses may teach us in the future about complex systems. This is a must-have book for students and practitioners in the natural and social sciences, with new material even for the experts.

Statistical Mechanics In A Nutshell

Author : Luca Peliti
ISBN : 9780691145297
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 59 MB
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Statistical mechanics is one of the most exciting areas of physics today, and it also has applications to subjects as diverse as economics, social behavior, algorithmic theory, and evolutionary biology. Statistical Mechanics in a Nutshell offers the most concise, self-contained introduction to this rapidly developing field. Requiring only a background in elementary calculus and elementary mechanics, this book starts with the basics, introduces the most important developments in classical statistical mechanics over the last thirty years, and guides readers to the very threshold of today's cutting-edge research. Statistical Mechanics in a Nutshell zeroes in on the most relevant and promising advances in the field, including the theory of phase transitions, generalized Brownian motion and stochastic dynamics, the methods underlying Monte Carlo simulations, complex systems--and much, much more. The essential resource on the subject, this book is the most up-to-date and accessible introduction available for graduate students and advanced undergraduates seeking a succinct primer on the core ideas of statistical mechanics. Provides the most concise, self-contained introduction to statistical mechanics Focuses on the most promising advances, not complicated calculations Requires only elementary calculus and elementary mechanics Guides readers from the basics to the threshold of modern research Highlights the broad scope of applications of statistical mechanics

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