parliamentary versus presidential government oxford readings in politics and government

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Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government

Author : Arend Lijphart
ISBN : 9780198780441
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 40. 79 MB
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Parliamentary and presidential governments--exemplified by most European countries for the former and the United States and Latin America for the latter--are the two principal forms of democracy in the modern world. Their respective advantages and disadvantages have been long debated, at first mainly by British and American political observers but with increasing frequency in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America, but also in Western and Eastern Europe and Asia. The recent world-wide wave of democratization has intensified both the debate and its significance. This volume brings together the most important statement on the subject by advocates and analysts--from Montesquieu and Madison to Lipset and Linz. It also treats the merits of less frequently used democratic types, such as French-style semi-presidentialism, that may be regarded as intermediate forms between parliamentarism and presidentialism.

Presidentialism Parliamentarism And Democracy

Author : Jose Antonio Cheibub
ISBN : 0521542448
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44. 83 MB
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This book questions the reasons why presidential democracies more likely to break down than parliamentary ones.

The West European Party System

Author : Peter Mair
ISBN : 9780198275831
Genre : Nature
File Size : 75. 44 MB
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The analysis of party systems in Western Europe has long constituted a major focus of concern in comparative political science. Now for the first time, many of the classic writings in this field have been collected into a single volume. The collection contains seminal writings by Weber, Neumann, Duverger, Kirchheimer, Daalder, Rokkan, and Sartori, as well as a selection from the more recent debates on changes in European party systems, including the contributions of Pedersen, Wolinetz, and Inglehart. The writings cover the development, stabilization, and transformation of party systems and include some of the key analyses which have sought to distinguish between different types of party systems.

Achieving Democracy

Author : Mary Fran T. Malone
ISBN : 9781441183255
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41. 59 MB
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Democracy is the ability to participate freely and equally in the political and economic affairs of the country. Americans have relied on philosophical pragmatism and on the impulse of political progressivism to express those creedal democratic values. Achieving Democracy argues that, in the last 30 years, however, by focusing on free markets and small government, America has since lost its grasp on these crucial democratic values. Economically, the vast majority of Americans have been made worse off due to a historically unprecedented redistribution of wealth from the lower and middle classes to the top one percent. Politically, partisan gridlock has hampered efforts to seek fairer taxes, responsive and effective regulation, reliable health care, and better education, among other needs. Achieving Democracy critiques the history of the last 30 years of neoliberal government in the United States, and enables an understanding of the dynamic and changing nature of contemporary government and the future of the regulatory state. Sidney A. Shapiro and Joseph P. Tomain demonstrate how lessons from the past can be applied today to regain essential democratic losses within the successful framework of a progressive government to ultimately construct a good society for all citizens.

The Oxford Handbook Of Italian Politics

Author : Erik Jones
ISBN : 9780199669745
Genre : Italy
File Size : 89. 69 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics provides a comprehensive look at the political life of one of Europe's most exciting and turbulent democracies. Under the hegemonic influence of Christian Democracy in the early post-World War II decades, Italy went through a period of rapid growth and political transformation. In part this resulted in tumult and a crisis of governability; however, it also gave rise to innovation in the form of Eurocommunism and new forms of political accommodation. The great strength of Italy lay in its constitution; its great weakness lay in certain legacies of the past. Organized crime - popularly but not exclusively associated with the mafia - is one example. A self-contained and well entrenched 'caste' of political and economic elites is another. These weaknesses became apparent in the breakdown of political order in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This ushered in a combination of populist political mobilization and experimentation with electoral systems design, and the result has been more evolutionary than transformative. Italian politics today is different from what it was during the immediate post-World War II period, but it still shows many of the influences of the past.

Pressure Groups

Author : Jeremy John Richardson
ISBN : 0198780524
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 65. 39 MB
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Since the early 1950s pressure groups have been recognized as playing a key role in the policy process in western democracies. As legislatures and political parties have declined in influence, the relationship between pressure groups and government has become highly developed. This has presented both problems and opportunities for the participation of ordinary citizens in the governmental process. This book reviews some of the key theoretical concepts developed in the study of pressure groups and presents a series of up-to-date studies of their role in particular countries, including the U.K., the U.S., France, and the former Soviet Union. It is an authoritative collection, edited by one of Britain's leading pressure group analysts, and will be invaluable for both students and practitioners who want to understand current developments in the lobbying process.

Introduction To Caribbean Politics

Author : Cynthia Barrow-Giles
ISBN : UTEXAS:059173013967655
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 97 MB
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This is an introductory text for students of Caribbean Politics at the undergraduate level. It provides a broad historical sweep from the slave era to the contemporary period, characterised by issues of structural adjustments and globalisation, and in between, the years of worker revolt and protest. The text is structured and presented around a number of core concepts used to analyse Caribbean politics and political systems. Understanding of each concept is aided and enriched by selected readings from both published works as well as original articles specially commissioned for this book. This student-friendly text contains summaries of the key concepts discussed in each section, questions to test students' understanding, suggestions for further reading and a self-assessment section. Key concepts/issues include: 1. Imperialism, Colonialism, Neo-Colonialism, Re-Colonisation 2. Struggles of the working class people 3. The politics of constitutional decolonisation and the Westminster model 4. Party systems and electoral politic 5. Trade Unionism 6. The Politics of change: alternative development strategies 7. Regional integration.

Presidents With Prime Ministers

Author : Margit Tavits
ISBN : 9780199553327
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70. 81 MB
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This book is about presidents in parliamentary systems. One commonly recurring political debate within parliamentary systems is over whether or not the public should directly elect the head of state. Despite the importance of this topic in practical politics, political scientists have offered little empirical evidence, yet made bold assumptions about the consequences of popular elections for heads of state. A common argument is that direct elections enhance presidents' legitimacythereby increasing their activism and encouraging authoritarian tendencies. Another popular assumption is that direct presidential elections are more heavily contested and partisan, polarizing and dividing political elites and the electorate. Proponents of direct elections argue that such electionswill help decrease voter alienation and apathy. This book challenges the conventional wisdom. Using both quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence from democratic systems across the world, this book demonstrates that compared to indirect selection methods, direct elections do not yield more active and contentious presidents, do not polarize political elites or society, and do not remedy political apathy. Rather, presidential activism in both "semi-presidential" and "pure parliamentary"systems is shaped by political opportunity framework - the institutional strength and partisan composition of both parliament and government. Further, because holding the presidency provides parties with an electoral asset, direct and indirect presidential elections can be equally contentious andpolarizing. Last, but not least, rather than decreasing apathy, direct election is associated with increased voter fatigue and decreased turnout in parliamentary elections by about seven percentage points.

Electoral Laws And Their Political Consequences

Author : Bernard Grofman
ISBN : 9780875862675
Genre : Law
File Size : 48. 18 MB
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..." a usful volume on the impact of electoral laws...includes a very good bibliography and index...establishes a broader international and interdisciplinary perspective on the methods of representation." - American Political Science Review

Foundations Of Comparative Politics

Author : Kenneth Newton
ISBN : 9781139482127
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 30. 45 MB
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This student-friendly introduction to the key theories and concepts of comparative politics now provides even broader coverage of the world's democracies, with examples drawn from across the globe. Foundations of Comparative Politics contains a wealth of information, clearly structured and easy to read, with clear definition of Key Terms. It covers all the important themes in the field, including constitutional design and institutions; mass and elite politics; policy-making and implementation; and the future of the state and democracy in a globalising world. A new chapter on studying comparative politics, and new 'What Have We Learned?' and 'Lessons of Comparison' summary sections help students pull together the lessons of each chapter. Combining facts and theory throughout, debate is stimulated through the use of Controversy boxes, and Fact Files and Briefings give students interesting data that illustrates the key issues in the text. Online resources, including MCQs and Powerpoint slides, complete the package.

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