ordinary men reserve police battalion 101 and the final solution in poland

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Ordinary Men

Author : Christopher R. Browning
ISBN : 9780062303035
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 17 MB
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Christopher R. Browning’s shocking account of how a unit of average middle-aged Germans became the cold-blooded murderers of tens of thousands of Jews—now with a new afterword and additional photographs. Ordinary Men is the true story of Reserve Police Battalion 101 of the German Order Police, which was responsible for mass shootings as well as round-ups of Jewish people for deportation to Nazi death camps in Poland in 1942. Browning argues that most of the men of RPB 101 were not fanatical Nazis but, rather, ordinary middle-aged, working-class men who committed these atrocities out of a mixture of motives, including the group dynamics of conformity, deference to authority, role adaptation, and the altering of moral norms to justify their actions. Very quickly three groups emerged within the battalion: a core of eager killers, a plurality who carried out their duties reliably but without initiative, and a small minority who evaded participation in the acts of killing without diminishing the murderous efficiency of the battalion whatsoever. While this book discusses a specific Reserve Unit during WWII, the general argument Browning makes is that most people succumb to the pressures of a group setting and commit actions they would never do of their own volition. Ordinary Men is a powerful, chilling, and important work with themes and arguments that continue to resonate today. “A remarkable—and singularly chilling—glimpse of human behavior...This meticulously researched book...represents a major contribution to the literature of the Holocaust."—Newsweek

Ordinary Men

Author : James Chappel
ISBN : 9781351350839
Genre :
File Size : 69. 79 MB
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Of all the controversies facing historians today, few are more divisive or more important than the question of how the Holocaust was possible. What led thousands of Germans - many of them middle-aged reservists with, apparently, little Nazi zeal - to willingly commit acts of genocide? Was it ideology? Was there something rotten in the German soul? Or was it - as Christopher Browning argues in this highly influential book - more a matter of conformity, a response to intolerable social and psychological pressure? Ordinary Men is a microhistory, the detailed study of a single unit in the Nazi killing machine. Browning evaluates a wide range of evidence to seek to explain the actions of the "ordinary men" who made up reserve Police Battalion 101, taking advantage of the wide range of resources prepared in the early 1960s for a proposed war crimes trial. He concludes that his subjects were not "evil;" rather, their actions are best explained by a desire to be part of a team, not to shirk responsibility that would otherwise fall on the shoulders of comrades, and a willingness to obey authority. Browning's ability to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments - both the survivors' and other historians' - is what sets his work apart from other studies that have attempted to get to the root of the motivations for the Holocaust, and it is also what marks Ordinary Men as one of the most important works of its generation.

The Origins Of The Final Solution

Author : Christopher Browning
ISBN : 9781448165865
Genre : History
File Size : 51. 27 MB
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The Origins of the Final Solution is the most detailed, careful, and comprehensive analysis to date of the descent of the Nazi persecution of the Jews into mass murder: the Holocaust. Arguing that genocide was not a preconceived plan but rather a discovered possibility, Christopher Browning explains how Hitler's decision to murder the Jews en masse emerged in stages and by a process of elimination that gradually foreclosed plans for their expulsion from Europe. Only in the interval between late September and late October 1941 did the desire to "remove" the Jews intersect with the discovery of acceptable means of killing them on a large scale and with the euphoria of expected victory in Russia, all of which followed on from two years of 'race war' and 'racial imperialism' in eastern Europe that prepared 'ordinary Germans' for this fateful task.

Nazi Policy Jewish Workers German Killers

Author : Christopher R. Browning
ISBN : 052177490X
Genre : History
File Size : 31. 35 MB
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This volume uses new evidence to shed light on controversial issues in current Holocaust scholarship.

Journey From Genesis To Genocide

Author : Peter J. DiDomenica
ISBN : 9781434930019
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62. 18 MB
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We are all familiar with the violence that results from anger and rage - a momentary reaction to a provocation that results in destructive behavior. But what is it about human nature that allows entire populations to engage in the wholesale destruction of another population with cruel efficiency and little or no remorse or guilt? In the twentieth century deliberate and planned destructive behavior on massive scales resulted in more than 160 million deaths, nearly equaling the entire population of the world at the time of Jesus Christ. This book is an insightful and inspiring exploration of the depths of the human soul that combines the latest scientific knowledge with vivid historical examples and the authors' real world experience as career law enforcement and homeland security officials. This journey is presented with a unique and paradigm-shifting perspective on man's capacity to commit extreme atrocities, including ethnic cleansings and genocide, as well as man's ability to engage in selfless acts of compassion. The authors focus on the one emotion that brings man to the apex of evil - hate- and the emotion that is key to our altruism - empathy. The authors persuade the reader that the control of hatred and fostering of empathy are critical to our ultimate survival as a species. These two emotional states are the polar opposites that determine who we are willing to destroy and who we are willing to save. About the Authors Peter J. DiDomenica is a retired lieutenant from the Massachusetts State Police who served for 23 years. After the 9/11 attacks he served as the Director of Security Policy at Logan International Airport where he developed innovative anti-terrorism programs including creation of the behavior based screening program adopted by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) know as "SPOT." He has served as a subject matter expert on behavior analysis for the U.S. Army, Transportation Security Administration, Department of Homeland Security, and National Science Foundation. He has been a lecturer on terrorism related issues for the FBI, CIA, Secret Service, DHS, and the Department of Defense. He holds a Juris Doctor from Western New England University School of Law. He presently is a trainer and consultant on homeland security and biased policing. Thomas G. Robbins retired from the Massachusetts State Police after a 27 year career culminating in his appointment as the superintendent in 2004. Shortly after the 9/11 attacks, he was asked by the Governor to take over as the Director of Aviation Security for Logan International Airport. During his tenure he developed many security firsts for Logan Airport leading to the airport being recognized as a national leader in aviation security. He served as the incident commander for the arrest of Richard Reid, the so called "shoe bomber," at Boston Logan Airport in December 2001 and was a key official that developed and oversaw the security for the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, the first such post 9/11 national convention. He holds a Jurist Doctor from Suffolk University Law School. He presently is a trainer and consultant on homeland security and biased policing.

The Holocaust An Encyclopedia And Document Collection 4 Volumes

Author : Paul R. Bartrop
ISBN : 9781440840845
Genre : History
File Size : 81. 62 MB
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This four-volume set provides reference entries, primary documents, and personal accounts from individuals who lived through the Holocaust that allow readers to better understand the cultural, political, and economic motivations that spurred the Final Solution. • Provides an easily readable encyclopedic collection of secondary source materials, such as reference entries, maps, and tables, that offer a breadth of content for understanding the Holocaust • Examines a broad range of themes relating to the Holocaust, enabling readers to consider important questions about the historical experience and its implications for today • Includes two volumes of primary source material that introduce users to the cultural, political, and economic motivations that spurred the Final Solution • Presents memoirs and personal narratives that showcase the experiences of survivors and resistors who lived through the chaos and horror of the Final Solution • Includes a comprehensive bibliography that serves as a gateway to further research

The Holocaust

Author : Jeff Hay
ISBN : 9780737768978
Genre : Young Adult Nonfiction
File Size : 24. 42 MB
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This collection of essays explores genocide and persecution of the European Jews and others during World War II. Essays include the historical background on the systematic, state-sponsored murder and persecution by the Nazi regime. Topics include race superiority, threats to the German community, and personal narratives by those impacted directly or indirectly by the Holocaust.

Tolerating Intolerance

Author : Professor Amos N. Guiora
ISBN : 9780199331840
Genre : Law
File Size : 87. 74 MB
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Over the years, numerous tragic events serve as a reminder of the extraordinary power of extremism, both on a religious and secular level. As extremism confronts society on a daily basis, it is essential to analyze, comprehend, and define it. It is also essential to define extremism narrowly in order to avoid the danger of recklessly castigating for mere thoughts alone. Tolerating Intolerance provides readers with a focused definition of extremism, and articulates the tensions faced in casting an arbitrary, capricious net in an effort to protect society, while offering mechanisms to resolve its seemingly intractable conundrum. Professor Guiora examines extremism in six different countries: Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States through interviews with a wide range of individuals including academics, policy makers, faith leaders, public commentators, national security and law enforcement officials. This enables both an in-depth discussion of extremism in each country, and facilitates a comparative analysis regarding both religious and secular extremism.

A History Of Germany 1918 2014

Author : Mary Fulbrook
ISBN : 9781118776131
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 85 MB
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The fourth edition of A History of Germany, 1918-2014: ADivided Nation introduces students to the key themes of20th century German history, tracing the dramaticsocial, cultural, and political tensions in Germany since 1918. Nowthoroughly updated, the text includes new coverage of the Eurocrisis and a review of Angela Merkel’s Chancellorship. New edition of a well-known, classic survey by a leadingscholar in the field, thoroughly updated for a new generation ofreaders Provides an overview of the turbulent history of Germany fromthe end of the First World War through the Third Reich and beyond,examining the character and consequences of war and genocide Treats German history from 1918 to 2014 from the perspectivesof instability, division and reunification, covering East and WestGerman history in equal depth Offers important reflections on Angela Merkel’sChancellorship as it extends into a new term Concise, substantive coverage of this period make it an idealresource for undergraduate students

The Continuities Of German History

Author : Helmut Walser Smith
ISBN : 9781139471251
Genre : History
File Size : 49. 65 MB
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This book opens the debate about German history in the long term – about how ideas and political forms are traceable across what historians have taken to be the sharp breaks of German history. Smith argues that current historiography has become ever more focused on the twentieth century, and on twentieth-century explanations for the catastrophes at the center of German history. Against conventional wisdom, he considers continuities - nation and nationalism, religion and religious exclusion, racism and violence - that are the center of the German historical experience and that have long histories. Smith explores these deep continuities in novel ways, emphasizing their importance, while arguing that Germany was not on a special path to destruction. The result is a series of innovative reflections on the crystallization of nationalist ideology, on patterns of anti-Semitism, and on how the nineteenth-century vocabulary of race structured the twentieth-century genocidal imagination.

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