numerical ecology volume 24 third edition developments in environmental modelling

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Numerical Ecology

Author : P. Legendre
ISBN : 9780444538697
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 54 MB
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The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. An updated, 3rd English edition of the most widely cited book on quantitative analysis of multivariate ecological data Relates ecological questions to methods of statistical analysis, with a clear description of complex numerical methods All methods are illustrated by examples from the ecological literature so that ecologists clearly see how to use the methods and approaches in their own research All calculations are available in R language functions

Numerical Ecology With R

Author : Daniel Borcard
ISBN : 9783319714042
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 57. 10 MB
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This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary multivariate ecological analysis. The second edition of this book features a complete revision to the R code and offers improved procedures and more diverse applications of the major methods. It also highlights important changes in the methods and expands upon topics such as multiple correspondence analysis, principal response curves and co-correspondence analysis. New features include the study of relationships between species traits and the environment, and community diversity analysis. This book is aimed at professional researchers, practitioners, graduate students and teachers in ecology, environmental science and engineering, and in related fields such as oceanography, molecular ecology, agriculture and soil science, who already have a background in general and multivariate statistics and wish to apply this knowledge to their data using the R language, as well as people willing to accompany their disciplinary learning with practical applications. People from other fields (e.g. geology, geography, paleoecology, phylogenetics, anthropology, the social and education sciences, etc.) may also benefit from the materials presented in this book. Users are invited to use this book as a teaching companion at the computer. All the necessary data files, the scripts used in the chapters, as well as extra R functions and packages written by the authors of the book, are available online (URL: http://adn.biol.umontreal.ca/~numericalecology/numecolR/).

A Biologist S Guide To Mathematical Modeling In Ecology And Evolution

Author : Sarah P. Otto
ISBN : 9781400840915
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 44 MB
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Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available

Measuring Biological Diversity

Author : Anne E. Magurran
ISBN : 9781118687925
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 5 MB
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This accessible and timely book provides a comprehensive overview of how to measure biodiversity. The book highlights new developments, including innovative approaches to measuring taxonomic distinctness and estimating species richness, and evaluates these alongside traditional methods such as species abundance distributions, and diversity and evenness statistics. Helps the reader quantify and interpret patterns of ecological diversity, focusing on the measurement and estimation of species richness and abundance. Explores the concept of ecological diversity, bringing new perspectives to a field beset by contradictory views and advice. Discussion spans issues such as the meaning of community in the context of ecological diversity, scales of diversity and distribution of diversity among taxa Highlights advances in measurement paying particular attention to new techniques such as species richness estimation, application of measures of diversity to conservation and environmental management and addressing sampling issues Includes worked examples of key methods in helping people to understand the techniques and use available computer packages more effectively

Multivariate Analysis Of Ecological Data Using Canoco 5

Author : Petr Šmilauer
ISBN : 9781139953047
Genre : Nature
File Size : 46. 46 MB
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This revised and updated edition focuses on constrained ordination (RDA, CCA), variation partitioning and the use of permutation tests of statistical hypotheses about multivariate data. Both classification and modern regression methods (GLM, GAM, loess) are reviewed and species functional traits and spatial structures analysed. Nine case studies of varying difficulty help to illustrate the suggested analytical methods, using the latest version of Canoco 5. All studies utilise descriptive and manipulative approaches, and are supported by data sets and project files available from the book website: http://regent.prf.jcu.cz/maed2/. Written primarily for community ecologists needing to analyse data resulting from field observations and experiments, this book is a valuable resource to students and researchers dealing with both simple and complex ecological problems, such as the variation of biotic communities with environmental conditions or their response to experimental manipulation.

Models Of The Ecological Hierarchy

Author : Ferenc Jordán
ISBN : 9780444593962
Genre : Nature
File Size : 29. 46 MB
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"Based on selected papers covering the presentations at the 7th European Conference on Ecological Modelling, organized by ISEM and hosted by The Microsoft Research--University of Trento Center for Computational and Systems Biology from 30 May to 2 June, 2011 in Riva del Garde, Italy"--P. xi.

Environmental Modelling

Author : John Wainwright
ISBN : 9781118351482
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51. 62 MB
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Simulation models are an established method used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this second edition is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The authors present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and then encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity 2nd edition is divided into four main sections: An overview of methods and approaches to modelling. State of the art for modelling environmental processes Tools used and models for management Current and future developments. The second edition evolves from the first by providing additional emphasis and material for those students wishing to specialize in environmental modelling. This edition: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g. climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. This book is suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental modelling, environmental science, civil engineering and biology who will already be familiar with the subject and are moving on to specialize in the field. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, and geochemists.

Ecological Statistics

Author : Gordon A. Fox
ISBN : 9780191652882
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 62 MB
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The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.

Biological Diversity

Author : Anne E. Magurran
ISBN : 9780199580668
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 68. 57 MB
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This research level text provides an up-to-date, authoritative review of the methods of measuring biological diversity, as well as the application of these methods.

The Theory Of Ecology

Author : Samuel M. Scheiner
ISBN : 9780226736860
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 76 MB
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Despite claims to the contrary, the science of ecology has a long history of building theories. Many ecological theories are mathematical, computational, or statistical, though, and rarely have attempts been made to organize or extrapolate these models into broader theories. The Theory of Ecology brings together some of the most respected and creative theoretical ecologists of this era to advance a comprehensive, conceptual articulation of ecological theories. The contributors cover a wide range of topics, from ecological niche theory to population dynamic theory to island biogeography theory. Collectively, the chapters ably demonstrate how theory in ecology accounts for observations about the natural world and how models provide predictive understandings. It organizes these models into constitutive domains that highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ecological understanding. This book is a milestone in ecological theory and is certain to motivate future empirical and theoretical work in one of the most exciting and active domains of the life sciences.

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