nucleation theory lecture notes in physics

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Nucleation Theory

Author : Vitaly Kalikmanov
ISBN : 9789048136438
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 17 MB
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One of the most striking phenomena in condensed matter physics is the occurrence of abrupt transitions in the structure of a substance at certain temperatures or pressures. These are first order phase transitions, and examples such as the freezing of water are familiar in everyday life. The conditions at which the transformation takes place can sometimes vary. For example, the freezing point of water is not always 0°C, but the liquid can be supercooled considerably if it is pure enough and treated carefully. The reason for this phenomenon is nucleation. This monograph covers all major available routes of theoretical research of nucleation phenomena (phenomenological models, semi-phenomenological theories, density functional theories, microscopic and semi-microscopic approaches), with emphasis on the formation of liquid droplets from a metastable vapor. Also, it illustrates the application of these various approaches to experimentally relevant problems. In spite of the familiarity of the involved phenomena, it is still impossible to calculate nucleation accurately, as the properties and the kinetics of the daughter phase are insufficiently well known. Existing theories based upon classical nucleation theory have on the whole explained the trends in behavior correctly. However they often fail spectacularly to account for new data, in particular in the case of binary or, more generally, multi-component nucleation. The current challenge of this book is to go beyond such classical models and provide a more satisfactory theory by using density functional theory and microscopic computer simulations in order to describe the properties of small clusters. Also, semi-phenomenological models are proposed, which attempt to relate the properties of small clusters to known properties of the bulk phases. This monograph is an introduction as well as a compendium to researchers in soft condensed matter physics and chemical physics, graduate and post-graduate students in physics and chemistry starting on research in the area of nucleation, and to experimentalists wishing to gain a better understanding of the efforts being made to account for their data.

Physics And Chemistry Of Finite Systems From Clusters To Crystals

Author : Peru Jena
ISBN : 9789401726450
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 59 MB
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Recent innovations in experimental techniques such as molecular and cluster beam epitaxy, supersonic jet expansion, matrix isolation and chemical synthesis are increasingly enabling researchers to produce materials by design and with atomic dimension. These materials constrained by sire, shape, and symmetry range from clusters containing as few as two atoms to nanoscale materials consisting of thousands of atoms. They possess unique structuraI, electronic, magnetic and optical properties that depend strongly on their size and geometry. The availability of these materials raises many fundamental questions as weIl as technological possibilities. From the academic viewpoint, the most pertinent question concerns the evolution of the atomic and electronic structure of the system as it grows from micro clusters to crystals. At what stage, for example, does the cluster look as if it is a fragment of the corresponding crystal. How do electrons forming bonds in micro-clusters transform to bands in solids? How do the size dependent properties change from discrete quantum conditions, as in clusters, to boundary constrained bulk conditions, as in nanoscale materials, to bulk conditions insensitive to boundaries? How do the criteria of classification have to be changed as one goes from one size domain to another? Potential for high technological applications also seem to be endless. Clusters of otherwise non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behavior when constrained by size, shape, and dimension. NanoscaIe metal particles exhibit non-linear opticaI properties and increased mechanical strength. SimiIarly, materials made from nanoscale ceramic particIes possess plastic behavior.

Nucleation Theory And Applications

Author : Jürn W. P. Schmelzer
ISBN : 9783527604760
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30. 90 MB
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An overview of recent developments in the field of first-order phase transitions, which may be considered a continuation of the previous work 'Aggregation Phenomena in Complex Systems', covering work done and discussed since then. Each chapter features a different aspect of the field written by international specialists, and covers such topics as nucleation and crystallization kinetic of silicate glasses, nucleation in concentration gradients, the determination of coefficients of emission of nucleation theory, diamonds from vitreous carbon.

Thermodynamics Of Finite Systems And The Kinetics Of First Order Phase Transitions

Author : Jürn Schmelzer
ISBN : 9783322964274
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21. 39 MB
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Synthesis Structure And Properties Of Poly Lactic Acid

Author : Maria Laura Di Lorenzo
ISBN : 9783319642307
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44. 77 MB
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The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Nucleation And Atmospheric Aerosols

Author : Norihiko Fukuta
ISBN : UCSD:31822016258998
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 48 MB
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Nucleation And Atmospheric Aerosols

Author : Norihiko Fukuta
ISBN : UOM:39015029897462
Genre : Aerosols
File Size : 58. 41 MB
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Commentationes Physico Mathematicae Et Chemico Medicae

Author :
ISBN : 9516532322
Genre : Chemistry
File Size : 70. 86 MB
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Nova Acta Leopoldina

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015038764133
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 52 MB
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Nucleation And Atmospheric Aerosols 2000

Author : Barbara N. Hale
ISBN : 1563969580
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 32 MB
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Conference attendees from about 30 countries met to present research results and discuss current issues in the fields of topospheric and stratospheric aerosols and nucleation phenomena. Specifically addressed are aerosol and nucleation mechanisms affecting ice formation, cloud droplet formation and growth, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol related global warming and ozone depletion mechanisms as well as acid rain production and pollution of the earth's atmosphere. The nucleation symposium part of this conference addresses all theoretical and experimental aspects of single and multi-component nucleation, ion induced nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation involving foreign particulates. The conference attracts leading scientists in the aerosol and nucleation communities and the Proceedings provides a technical summary of the current status of research.

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