non discrimination in international trade in services likeness in wto gats cambridge international trade and economic law

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Non Discrimination In International Trade In Services

Author : Nicolas F. Diebold
ISBN : 9781139492126
Genre : Law
File Size : 55. 65 MB
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The principle of non-discrimination is fundamental to the regulation of international trade in goods and services. In the context of trade in goods, the concept of 'like products' has become a key element of the legal analysis of whether a trade obstacle violates GATT non-discrimination obligations. The equivalent concept of 'like services and service suppliers' in GATS rules on non-discrimination has received little attention in WTO jurisprudence. In light of the remaining uncertainties, Nicolas Diebold analyses the legal problems of the GATS 'like services and services suppliers' concept using a contextual and comparative methodology. The 'likeness' element is not analysed in isolation, but in context with 'less favourable treatment' and regulatory purpose as additional elements of non-discrimination. The book also explores how far theories from non-discrimination rules in GATT, NAFTA, BITs and EC as well as market definition theories from competition law may be applied to 'likeness' in GATS.

Regulatory Autonomy And International Trade In Services

Author : Bregt Natens
ISBN : 9781785364310
Genre : Law
File Size : 77. 80 MB
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This book considers how the interplay between multilateral and preferential liberalisation of trade in services increasingly raises concerns, both from the perspective of the beneficiaries of such liberalisation (whose rights are uncertain) and that of regulators (whose regulatory autonomy is constrained). The author shows how these concerns lead to vast underutilisation of, and strong prejudices against, the benefits of services liberalisation. The book meticulously analyses and compares the EU's obligations under the GATS and the services chapters of several RTAs to finally assess the merits of the raised concerns.

Non Discrimination And The Role Of Regulatory Purpose In International Trade And Investment Law

Author : Andrew D. Mitchell
ISBN : 9781785368097
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26. 3 MB
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Central to this book is an analysis of the obligation upon states to ensure non-discrimination in the form of adherence to the principles of national treatment and most-favoured nation treatment. These are critical principles for both international trade law and international investment law, yet the case-law in both fields reveals significant inconsistencies regarding key elements of non-discrimination. Tribunals have invoked ‘regulatory purpose’ to assist in identifying relevant discrimination, but have done so without offering a definition of regulatory purpose and in significantly differing ways. This book explains these inconsistencies and offers a new definition of regulatory purpose.

Ownership Unbundling And Related Measures In The Eu Energy Sector

Author : Tilman Michael Dralle
ISBN : 9783319777979
Genre : Law
File Size : 69. 5 MB
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of unbundling and, in particular, ownership unbundling policies from the perspective of international economic law. It does so by focusing on the prominent example of the EU’s energy sector and its Third Energy Package. Unbundling has become an increasingly crucial competition instrument in network-bound industries worldwide. It is designed to ensure access to bottleneck infrastructures on fair and non-discriminatory terms and thus to suppress the anti-competitive potential deriving from vertical integration in natural monopoly situations. While promoting important public policy objectives, unbundling policies have also raised a number of legal issues. This book analyzes how international economic law limits the adoption and maintenance of unbundling and related measures and also outlines how international trade law can play a ‘positive’ role in this field. As a result, it provides a valuable reference for academics, practitioners and policy-makers.

Small And Medium Sized Enterprises In International Economic Law

Author : Thilo Rensmann
ISBN : 9780192515162
Genre : Law
File Size : 56. 32 MB
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International economic law, with its traditional focus on large multinational enterprises, is only slowly waking up to the new reality of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), entering the global marketplace. In the wake of the digital revolution, smaller companies now play an important role in the global economic landscape. In 2015 the UN expressly called for SMEs to have greater access to international trade and investment, and it is increasingly recognized that the integration of SMEs provides one of the keys to creating a more sustainable and inclusive global economy. As SMEs increasingly permeate transnational supply chains, so interactions between these companies and international economic law and policy proliferate. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in International Economic Law offers the first comprehensive analysis of the interaction between SMEs and international economic law. This book presents a broad international perspective, gathering together contributions by leading experts from academia, legal practice, and international organizations. It opens up a field of enquiry into this so far unexplored dynamic and provide a touchstone for future debate. The analysis covers a broad spectrum of international trade and investment law focusing on issues of particular interest to SMEs, such as trade in services, government procurement, and trade facilitation. Diverse perspectives illuminate regional developments (in particular within the EU) and the implications of mega-regional free trade agreements. The essays also examine questions of legitimacy of global economic governance; in particular, concerns surrounding the threat posed to the interests of domestic SMEs by the growing liberalization of international trade and investment. These essays constitute essential reading for practitioners and academics seeking to navigate a previously neglected trend in international economic law.

The Wto And International Investment Law

Author : Jürgen Kurtz
ISBN : 9781107009707
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 28 MB
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Jürgen Kurtz provides a theoretically grounded and doctrinally tractable framework to understand the relationship between international trade and investment law.

The Relevant Market In International Economic Law

Author : Christian A. Melischek
ISBN : 9781107031524
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83. 21 MB
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An in-depth analysis of 'product likeness' in GATT law - the key concept for the application of the non-discrimination principle.

Optimal Regulation And The Law Of International Trade

Author : Boris Rigod
ISBN : 9781316453773
Genre : Law
File Size : 40. 72 MB
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Are the limitations imposed on World Trade Organization (WTO) members' right to regulate efficient? This is a question that is only scarcely, if ever, analysed in existing literature. Boris Rigod aims to provide an answer to this fundamental concern. Using the tools of economic analysis and in particular the concept of economic efficiency as a benchmark, the author states that domestic regulatory measures should only be subject to scrutiny by WTO bodies when they cause negative international externalities through terms of trade manipulations. He then suggests that WTO law, applied by the WTO judiciary can prevent WTO members from attaining optimal levels of regulation. By applying a law and economics methodology, Rigod provides an innovative solution to the problem of how to reconcile members' regulatory autonomy and WTO rules as well as offering a novel analytical framework for assessing domestic regulations in the light of WTO law.

Regional Trade Agreements And The Multilateral Trading System

Author : Rohini Acharya
ISBN : 9781316889411
Genre : Law
File Size : 35. 56 MB
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This volume contains a collection of studies examining trade-related issues negotiated in regional trade agreements (RTAs) and how RTAs are related to the WTO's rules. While previous work has focused on subsets of RTAs, these studies are based on what is probably the largest dataset used to date, and highlight key issues that have been negotiated in all RTAs notified to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). New rules within RTAs are compared to rules agreed upon by WTO members. The extent of their divergences and the potential implications for parties to RTAs, as well as for WTO members that are not parties to RTAs, are examined. This volume makes an important contribution to the current debate on the role of the WTO in regulating international trade and how WTO rules relate to new rules being developed by RTAs.

Cultural Products And The World Trade Organization

Author : Tania Voon
ISBN : 9781139464833
Genre : Law
File Size : 74. 83 MB
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Debate about trade and culture has a long history, but the application of WTO rules to cultural products such as films, radio, and books remains one of the most divisive issues in the organization. After assessing the economic and social arguments for treating cultural products differently from things like steel or wheat, this 2007 book explains how the vastly different views of WTO members in earlier negotiations led to an outcome that is disappointing for all. It goes on to provide a comprehensive evaluation of possible solutions, including evolution of the law through WTO dispute settlement, an agreement outside the WTO, and reforms to improve the balance between trade liberalization and cultural policy objectives.

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