no higher law american foreign policy and the western hemisphere since 1776

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No Higher Law

Author : Brian Loveman
ISBN : 0807895989
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 9 MB
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Dismantling the myths of United States isolationism and exceptionalism, No Higher Law is a sweeping history and analysis of American policy toward the Western Hemisphere and Latin America from independence to the present. From the nation's earliest days, argues Brian Loveman, U.S. leaders viewed and treated Latin America as a crucible in which to test foreign policy and from which to expand American global influence. Loveman demonstrates how the main doctrines and policies adopted for the Western Hemisphere were exported, with modifications, to other world regions as the United States pursued its self-defined global mission. No Higher Law reveals the interplay of domestic politics and international circumstances that shaped key American foreign policies from U.S. independence to the first decade of the twenty-first century. This revisionist view considers the impact of slavery, racism, ethnic cleansing against Native Americans, debates on immigration, trade and tariffs, the historical growth of the military-industrial complex, and political corruption as critical dimensions of American politics and foreign policy. Concluding with an epilogue on the Obama administration, Loveman weaves together the complex history of U.S. domestic politics and foreign policy to achieve a broader historical understanding of American expansionism, militarism, imperialism, and global ambitions as well as novel insights into the challenges facing American policymakers at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

Legalist Empire

Author : Benjamin Allen Coates
ISBN : 9780190495978
Genre : Law
File Size : 27. 17 MB
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America's empire expanded dramatically following the Spanish-American War of 1898. The United States quickly annexed the Philippines and Puerto Rico, seized control over Cuba and the Panama Canal Zone, and extended political and financial power throughout Latin America. This age of empire, Benjamin Allen Coates argues, was also an age of international law. Justifying America's empire with the language of law and civilization, international lawyers-serving simultaneously as academics, leaders of the legal profession, corporate attorneys, and high-ranking government officials-became central to the conceptualization, conduct, and rationalization of US foreign policy. Just as international law shaped empire, so too did empire shape international law. Legalist Empire shows how the American Society of International Law was animated by the same notions of "civilization" that justified the expansion of empire overseas. Using the private papers and published writings of such figures as Elihu Root, John Bassett Moore, and James Brown Scott, Coates shows how the newly-created international law profession merged European influences with trends in American jurisprudence, while appealing to elite notions of order, reform, and American identity. By projecting an image of the United States as a unique force for law and civilization, legalists reconciled American exceptionalism, empire, and an international rule of law. Under their influence the nation became the world's leading advocate for the creation of an international court. Although the legalist vision of world peace through voluntary adjudication foundered in the interwar period, international lawyers-through their ideas and their presence in halls of power-continue to infuse vital debates about America's global role

Colombian Agency And The Making Of Us Foreign Policy

Author : Alvaro Mendez
ISBN : 9781317215738
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 51. 63 MB
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This book studies a significant event in US relations with Latin America, shedding light on the role of dependent states and their foreign policy agency in the process by which local concerns become intertwined with the dominant state’s foreign policy. Plan Colombia was a large-scale foreign aid programme through which the US intervened in the internal affairs of Colombia, by invitation. It proved to be one of the major successes of US foreign policy, and has been credited with stemming a potentially catastrophic security failure of the Colombian state. This book discusses the strategies and practices deployed by the Colombian government to influence US foreign policy decision making at the bureaucratic, legislative and executive levels, and is a distinctive contribution to our understanding of the dynamics of small power agency. Giving a clearer insight into the decision making processes in both the US and Colombia, this book founds its argument on solid empirical analysis assembled from interviews of the major players in the events including: Andres Pastrana, President of Colombia; Thomas Pickering, US State Department; Arturo Valenzuela, Senior Director for Inter-American Affairs at the NSA; General Barry McCaffrey, the US ‘Drug Czar’; and Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the US House of Representatives. Approaching the events in question from a bottom-up theoretical perspective that puts the emphasis on the facts of the case, this book will be of great interest to academics, students and policy makers in the field of foreign policy analysis, US foreign policy studies, and Latin American studies.

Violence At The Urban Margins

Author : Javier Auyero
ISBN : 9780190221485
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65. 2 MB
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In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.

Endless Empire

Author : Alfred W. McCoy
ISBN : UCSD:31822039434147
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 11 MB
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Throughout four millennia of recorded history there has been no end to empire, but instead an endless succession of empires. After five centuries of sustained expansion, the half-dozen European powers that ruled half of humanity collapsed with stunning speed after World War II, creating a hundred emerging nations in Asia and Africa. Amid this imperial transition, the United States became the new global hegemon, dominating this world order with an array of power that closely resembled that of its European predecessors. As Brazil, Russia, India, China, and the European Union now rise in global influence, twenty leading historians from four continents take a timely look backward and forward to discover patterns of eclipse in past empires that are already shaping a decline in U.S. global power, including: * erosion of economic and fiscal strength needed for military power on a global scale * misuse of military power through micro-military misadventures * breakdown of alliances among major powers * weakened controls over the subordinate elites critical for any empire's exercise of global power * insufficient technological innovation to sustain global force projection.

Opening America S Market

Author : Alfred E. Eckes Jr.
ISBN : 9780807861189
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 63. 17 MB
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Despite the passage of NAFTA and other recent free trade victories in the United States, former U.S. trade official Alfred Eckes warns that these developments have a dark side. Opening America's Market offers a bold critique of U.S. trade policies over the last sixty years, placing them within a historical perspective. Eckes reconsiders trade policy issues and events from Benjamin Franklin to Bill Clinton, attributing growing political unrest and economic insecurity in the 1990s to shortsighted policy decisions made in the generation after World War II. Eager to win the Cold War and promote the benefits of free trade, American officials generously opened the domestic market to imports but tolerated foreign discrimination against American goods. American consumers and corporations gained in the resulting global economy, but many low-skilled workers have become casualties. Eckes also challenges criticisms of the 'infamous' protectionist Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930, which allegedly worsened the Great Depression and provoked foreign retaliation. In trade history, he says, this episode was merely a mole hill, not a mountain.

Author : توماس بين
ISBN :
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23. 91 MB
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لعل الاراء الواردة فى الصفحات التالية لت تؤلف " بعد " بما يكفى لتحوز تأييدا عاما : فاعتياد عد اعتبار شئ ما " خاطئاً" وقتا طويلا يعطيه مظهرا زائفا من " الصحة " ويثير فى بداية الامر احتجاجا شديدا دفاعا عن الاعاف والعادات . ولكن سرعات ما تهدأ الجبلة اذ الوقت كفيل بأن يهدى الى الصواب اناسا اكثر ممن يهديهم العقل .

Author : George Packer
ISBN : 9789960549903
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88. 85 MB
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كتاب حاصل على جائزة كورنيليوس رايان لنادي الصحافة عبر البحار؛ لكونه أفضل كتاب تدور أحداثه حول الشؤون الدولية، وحاصل على جائزة كتب مكتبة نيويورك العامة هيلين بيرنستاين للتميز في الصحافة. يروي كتاب (بوابة الحشاشين) كيف أن الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية شرعت تغير تاريخ الشرق الأوسط، فإذا بها قد وقعت في شرك حرب عصابات في العراق، إنه كتاب يبعث الحياة في الناس والأفكار التي أوجدت سياسة الحرب في إدارة بوش، وذهبت بأمريكا إلى بوابة الحشاشين التي تعدُّ نقطة العبور الرئيسة إلى المنطقة الأمريكية في بغداد، كما أن الكتاب يبين موقع الحرب في الحياة الأمريكية: إذ المعركة الأيديولوجية في واشنطن أدّت إلى فوضى في العراق، وأفرزت مصائب لعوائل جراء أبنائها المقتولين هناك، وكشفت البيئة السياسية لبلد ذي أقطاب متعددة، لدرجة يصعب معها أن يفهم المشروع الأمريكي المعقد. إن سرد باكر (الموثوق والواقعي) بصيغة المتكلم يجمع ما بين التاريخ الملحمي وعمق الرواية وحميميتها، كما أنه يقدم وصفاً بارعاً لأكثر مغامرات أمريكة الخارجية إثارة للجدل منذ حرب فيتنام. الكتاب رواية لحرب العراق تقف في مصاف الروايات التاريخية العالمية، مثل: «A Bright Shining Lie ،«Fire in the Lake و«Hell in a Very Small Place»... إن كتاب (بوابة الحشاشين) يحتاج أن يقرأه كل أمريكي. توم بيسل، The New York Observer «إنه كتاب متألق». ريتشارد هولبروك، The Washington Post «إنه كتاب بارع... فتصوير باكر للمناقشات قبل الحرب متقن وجذاب ومؤثر... فهو يضع القارئ في جانب وولتر بنجامين من التاريخ، حيث يكتفي بالمشاهدة، دون أدنى حيلة له، بينما ينتشر الحطام من حوله». غيديون روز، The Washington Post Book World اختير كتاب (بوابة الحشاشين) بوصفه أحد أفضل عشرة كتب لعام 2005 من قبل: The New York Times Book Review, Time Slate, USA Today The Washington Post Book World, The Economist, The Boston Globe, the Chicago Tribune, the Los Angeles Times Book Review, New York, the San Francisco Chronicle العبيكان للنشر

Author : دافيد فرومكين
ISBN : 1855131633
Genre : Great Britain
File Size : 24. 49 MB
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Author : أمين معلوف
ISBN : 9789953719917
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 29. 12 MB
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غيري قد يتحدث عن "الجذور"... تلك ليست مفرداتي، فأنا لا أحب كلمة "جذور"، وأقله صورتها. فالجذور تتوارى في التربة، تتلوى في الوحل، تنمو في الظلمات؛ تبقي الشجرة أسيرة، منذ ولادتها، وتغذيها لقاء ابتزاز: "لو تحرّرت، تموتين!"... "أنا أنتمي إلى عشيرة ترتحل منذ الأزل في صحراء بحجم الكون. مواطننا نفارقها متى جف الينبوع، وبيوتنا خيام من حجارة، وجنسياتنا مسألة تواريخ أو سفن كل ما يصل بيننا، وراء الأجيال، ووراء البحار، ووراء بابل اللغات، رنين اسم...". ... ذاك هو أمين معلوف وذلك هو مشروعه في تلك "البدايات" إذ هو يغوص في تاريخ أهله، في محاولةٍ لإحياء مصير عشيرة بني معلوف واستحضار ذاكراتهم التي انتشرت لاحقاً من لبنان إلى كافة أرجاء المعمورة، وصولاً إلى الأميركيتين وكوبا... يستحضر أمين معلوف في هذه المغامرة التي تمتد على أكثر من قرن "صخرة طانيوس" و"ليون الأفريقي" الأموات، والأحياء، والأسلاف، والأطياف، يقتفي أثرهم عبر اختلاجات الإمبراطورية العثمانية، يتأمل في ذلك الشتات من المتصوفين والماسونيين، والمعلمين، والتجار، والحالمين المتعددي اللغات والكوزموبوليتيين. يعلم أن دماءهم المحمومة تجري في عروقه. ويعلم كذلك أن مساره الشخصي سوف يفقد أهميته لو لم يكن، بواسطة الكتابة والعاطفة، أميناً لهذه السلالة الصاخبة والمتشعبة. هل هذا الكتاب قصة حقيقية؟ أم لوحة جداري نحتت مباشرة في صخرة التاريخ؟ أم أسرار عائلة؟ هذه "البدايات" في الواقع اعتراف مهيب بالجميل، وهي كذلك صلاة مديدة ونبيلة. نشيد حب إلى أسرة تظل الوطن الوحيد لهذا الأديب الذي يعيش في منفى الاغتراب.

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