nitrogen management in crop production

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Nitrogen Management In Crop Production

Author : Nand Kumar Fageria
ISBN : 9781482222852
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 27 MB
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One of the main approaches for safeguarding food security, sustainable development has increased demand for knowledge on fertilizer management in crop production. Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. It is also responsible for the activation of many enzymes and, of course, plays an important role in photosynthesis. With a recovery efficiency of less than 50 percent in most cropping systems, a large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer is not used by plants, creating environmental and economic issues. Nitrogen Management in Crop Production covers the critical aspects for the judicious use of nitrogen in cropping systems. This includes appropriate methods of nitrogen application, effective source and timing of application during crop growth cycles, use of an adequate application rate to avoid loss and reduce cost, use of nitrogen-efficient crop genotypes, and use of legumes that fix sufficient amounts of atmospheric nitrogen. There is also a chapter on organic matter and its role in sustainability. This book presents recent information from the international literature, making it relevant for most agroecological regions. Chapters provide experimental results to aid in practical application of the information. The book contains color photos of nitrogen deficiency symptoms to serve as a guide for important crop species, such as rice, dry bean, wheat, soybean, and corn. It also includes numerous tables and figures, providing an easy-to-read reference.

Nitrogen Management In Irrigated Agriculture

Author : Roy S. Rauschkolb
ISBN : WISC:89049447808
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 80 MB
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Nitrogen constitutes about 79 percent of the earth's atmosphere, yet, in an agricultural plant production system, it is still common for soils to be deficient in the nitrogen needed for maximum plant growth. Nitrogen fertilizers, however, despite being essential for the economically driven production of food and fiber, are recognized as polluters of natural waters, and it has become increasingly apparent that manufactured and naturally occurring nitrogen resources must be better managed. This book addresses the problem by describing how such factors as types of soils and crops, irrigation methods, climate, and the nitrogen cycle itself affect levels of nitrogen in agricultural plant production systems. The book also provides a practical guide to the use of different fertilizers with regard to environment, type of plant, and method of farming. This book will help to achieve effective nitrogen management in agriculture and will be of interest to workers in local, state, and federal agricultural extension services, consulting firms, environmental regulators, and students and researchers in soil chemistry.

Optimizing Nitrogen Management In Food And Energy Production And Environmental Protection

Author : J. Galloway
ISBN : 9026519273
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 55 MB
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The production of food and energy interfere with the natural nitrogen cycle of the earth. Many of these changes are beneficial, while others are detrimental to societies and the environment. The changing nature of nitrogen in the global environment crosses scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries and political divisions and challenges the creative minds of natural and social scientists, economists, engineers, business leaders and planners. The papers in this book give readers a panoramic view of the changing nature of reactive nitrogen in the global environment, enabling them to make better choices about nitrogen management in food production and consumption, energy production and use, and environmental protection.

Phosphorus Management In Crop Production

Author : Nand Kumar Fageria
ISBN : 9781351667173
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 65 MB
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The world population is projected to reach nine billion by 2050, and in the coming years, global food demand is expected to increase by 50% or more. Higher crop productivity gains in the future will have to be achieved in developing countries through better natural resources management and crop improvement. After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) has more widespread influence on both natural and agricultural ecosystems than any other essential plant element. It has been estimated that 5.7 billion hectares of land worldwide contain insufficient amounts of available P for sustainable crop production, and P deficiency in crop plants is a widespread problem in various parts of the world. However, it has been estimated that worldwide minable P could last less than 40 years. For sustaining future food supplies, it is vital to enhance plant P use efficiency. To bring the latest knowledge and research advances in efficient management of P for economically viable and environmentally beneficial crop production in sustainable agriculture, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production contains chapters covering functions and diagnostic techniques for P requirements in crop plants, P use efficiency and interactions with other nutrients in crop plants, management of P for optimal crop production and environmental quality, and basic principles and methodology regarding P nutrition in crop plants. The majority of research data included are derived from many years of field, greenhouse, and lab work, hence the information is practical in nature and will have a significant impact on efficient management of P-fertilizers to enhance P use efficiency, improve crop production, promote sustainable agriculture, and reduce P losses through eluviations, leaching, and erosion to minimize environmental degradation. A comprehensive book that combines practical and applied information, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production is an excellent reference for students, professors, agricultural research scientists, food scientists, agricultural extension specialists, private consultants, fertilizer companies, and government agencies that deal with agricultural and environmental issues.

Nitrogen Fixation In Crop Production

Author : David W. Emerich
ISBN : 0891181709
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 33 MB
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The only book of its kind to present the science, application, and politics of the use of nitrogen-fixing crop plants across the globe in various environments, Nitrogen Fixation in Crop Production is a problem-solving look forward to the next Green Revolution. Nitrogen fixation can help provide a growing population with a nutritious, environmentally friendly, sustainable food supply. From new 'omics' approaches to the role of nitrogen fixation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, from farming strategies in nonindustrialized nations to nitrogen fixation in the global economy, scientists will find the key issues and expanding research areas, and how they contribute to the next wave of advancements related to agriculture and the environment. The American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America are prominent international scientific societies headquartered in Madison, Wisconsin. The Societies specialize in peer-reviewed, high-quality science titles for a wide variety of audiences.Some of the many areas we publish in include: -Soils Methods and Management -Crop Development and Improvement -Agrosystem Management and the Global Food Crisis -Environmental Conservation and Climatology

Agriculture And The Nitrogen Cycle

Author : Arvin Mosier
ISBN : 9781597267434
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 58 MB
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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development and a key agricultural input-but in excess it can lead to a host of problems for human and ecological health. Across the globe, distribution of fertilizer nitrogen is very uneven, with some areas subject to nitrogen pollution and others suffering from reduced soil fertility, diminished crop production, and other consequences of inadequate supply. Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle provides a global assessment of the role of nitrogen fertilizer in the nitrogen cycle. The focus of the book is regional, emphasizing the need to maintain food and fiber production while minimizing environmental impacts where fertilizer is abundant, and the need to enhance fertilizer utilization in systems where nitrogen is limited. The book is derived from a workshop held by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) in Kampala, Uganda, that brought together the world's leading scientists to examine and discuss the nitrogen cycle and related problems. It contains an overview chapter that summarizes the group's findings, four chapters on cross-cutting issues, and thirteen background chapters. The book offers a unique synthesis and provides an up-to-date, broad perspective on the issues of nitrogen fertilizer in food production and the interaction of nitrogen and the environment.

Nitrogen Management And Ground Water Protection

Author : Ronald F Follett
ISBN : 9780444599391
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89. 34 MB
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Supplying crops with adequate nitrogen is vital to ensuring food supplies. Once nitrogen is added to the soil, it is subject to chemical transformations of the nitrogen-cycle including transformation to nitrate. Excessive amounts of accumulated nitrate may then leach out of the soil and could potentially enter and contaminate drinking water supplies. The purpose of this book is to examine the subject of nitrogen management and ground water protection. The issue of maintaining ground water quality is addressed primarily from an agronomic point of view. Topics covered include: health and economic aspects of nitrate in drinking water; nitrate sources; ground water nitrate in the USA and other developed countries; transport, leaching and accounting for nitrogen; soil, nitrogen, crop and water management; and nitrate in aquifer systems. The book contains a keyword index and is organized into thirteen chapters, each with appropriate references, tables and figures. Chapter authors are among the leading experts on the subject of nitrate and ground water quality. Readers to whom the book is directed include soil scientists and agronomists, agricultural engineers (irrigation and drainage), environmental scientists, agricultural policy makers, and hydrologists.

Nutrient Use In Crop Production

Author : Zdenko Rengel
ISBN : 9781351427456
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65. 44 MB
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If you?re an agronomist, horticulturalist, plant and soil scientist, breeder, or soil microbiologist, you?ll want to read Nutrient Use in Crop Production to find everything you need to know about judicious nutrient management and maximizing nutrient utilization in the agricultural landscape. In this book, you?ll discover ways to minimize undesirable nutrient losses and techniques for preserving the environment while meeting the challenges of providing the earth?s increasing population with sufficient food, feed, and fiber to sustain life. Your existing knowledge base concerning this vital area of science will expand and grow as you become more open to the new ideas and applications contained in Nutrient Use in Crop Production. Most importantly, you?ll avoid the narrow scope found in most crop nutrition books and take a broader, more globally minded view of how to maximize nutrient use and minimize nutrient losses in the soil of agricultural systems. Specifically, you?ll find these and other areas covered: population growth, food production, and nutrient requirements managing soil fertility decline the role of nitrogen fixation in crop production delivering fertilizers through seed coatings micronutrient fertilizers the role of nutrient-efficient crops in modern agriculture Feeding the world without depleting the world?s viable soil nutrients is a monumental task--but one that can be achieved, as evidenced in the pages of Nutrient Use in Crop Production. You and your circle of students, professionals, and administrators will benefit greatly from this in-depth view of nutrient use in both developed and non-industrialized counties to give you a better sense of how to allow both the world and the world?s crops to grow.

Managing Soil Quality

Author : P. Schjønning
ISBN : 085199850X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84. 18 MB
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In-depth treatments of the soil quality concept, its history, and its applicability in research and in developed and developing societiesAll 18 chapters are written by well-established experts from Europe, North America and AustraliaSoil quality is a concept that allows soil functions to be related to specific purposes. Managing soil quality takes a management oriented approach by identifying key issues in soil quality and management options to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture. Topics covered include major plant nutrients (N, P, K), soil acidity, soil organic matter, soil biodiversity, soil compaction, erosion, pesticides and urban waste.

Agriculture Fertilizers And The Environment

Author : Marit Lægreid
ISBN : UOM:39015056627873
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 88 MB
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Global food production and challenges. The basis for food production - plant nutrients. Food and plant nutrients. Plant nutrient demand. Balanced crop nutrition. Nutrient sources. Nutrients from soil reserves. Nutrients from organic manures. Biological nitrogen fixation. Aerial deposition. Mineral fertilizers. 'Biofertilizers' and growth enhancers. The global challenge - to feed the people. Population growth and food availability. Population growth. Food supply. Food production in different regions. Food from the ocean. Future prospects. sutainable food production - constraints and opportunities. General overview. Soil productivity and land availability. Forests and deforestation. Freshwater and irrigation. Fertilizer use and demand. Plant breeding. Crop losses. Agriculture without fertilizers and pesticides - organic agriculture. Weather and climate - the greenhouse effect, the ozone layer and agriculture. Policy and economy. Soil productivity, fertilizer use and the environment. Concerns related to fertilizer use. Soil: the essential resource. Soil formation and development. Nutrients in soil. Soil organic matter. Fertilizers and soil life. Soil degradation. Soil erosion. Soil mining. Soil acidification. Other forms of degradation. Nitrogen. General overview. Nitrogen: chemistry and forms. Nitrogen fixation. Microbial conversions of fixed N. Human impacts on the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen in soil - sources and utilization by plants. Nitrogen losses from agriculture. Atmospheric emission and deposition of ammonia and nitrogen oxides. Management practices to improve NUE and rninimize losses. Nitrate and health. Phosphorus. General overview. Phosphorus in soil and availability to plants. Phosphate losses. Agricultural management to reduce losses. The remaining nutrients - potassium, sulphur, magnesium, calcium, micronutrients. Potassium. Sulphur. Calcium and magnesium. The micronutrients. Other elements in fertilizers. General overview. Cadmium. Radioactive elements. Other elements. Eutrophication of fresh and marine waters. General overview. Nutrient sources and transport. Eutrophication of fresh waters. Eutrophication of the marine environment. Food quality, environmental and sustainability aspects of fertilizer use in agriculture. Produce quality. General overview. Nutrient management and produce quality. Produce quality and human and animal health. Nutrients and plant diseases. General overview. Primary and secondary nutrients. Micronutrients. Other factors. Biodiversity in intensive agriculture. Energy use in agriculture. Farm work and energy. Use of non-renewable energy. Energy efficiency in agriculture. Fertilizer production - emissions and use of energy and resources. General overview. Mining activities. Energy and raw material use in fertilizer production. Emissions from production. Solid waste. Safety and occupational health. Non-renewable nutrient and energy resources. General overview. Mineral resources. Energy - fossil fuels. Life-cycle analysis for food production. Productivity and sustainability challenges. World cereal production - challenges and opportunities. Wheat. General overview. Yield and major constraints. Future challenges. Rice. General overview. Yield and major constraints. Sustainability and environmental problems. Future challenges. Maize. General overview. Maize in various climates.Yield and major constraints. Soil fertility and fertilizer use. Future challenges. Agricultural productivity in various regions - constraints and opportunities. North America - Canada and the USA. Latin America. Western Europe. Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. South and South-East Asia. Oceania - Australia and New Zealand. Africa.

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