neuroeconomics decision making and the brain

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Neuroeconomics

Author : Paul W. Glimcher
ISBN : 9780123914699
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 40. 48 MB
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In the years since it first published, Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain has become the standard reference and textbook in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics. The second edition, a nearly complete revision of this landmark book, will set a new standard. This new edition features five sections designed to serve as both classroom-friendly introductions to each of the major subareas in neuroeconomics, and as advanced synopses of all that has been accomplished in the last two decades in this rapidly expanding academic discipline. The first of these sections provides useful introductions to the disciplines of microeconomics, the psychology of judgment and decision, computational neuroscience, and anthropology for scholars and students seeking interdisciplinary breadth. The second section provides an overview of how human and animal preferences are represented in the mammalian nervous systems. Chapters on risk, time preferences, social preferences, emotion, pharmacology, and common neural currencies—each written by leading experts—lay out the foundations of neuroeconomic thought. The third section contains both overview and in-depth chapters on the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, value learning, and value representation. The fourth section, “The Neural Mechanisms for Choice, integrates what is known about the decision-making architecture into state-of-the-art models of how we make choices. The final section embeds these mechanisms in a larger social context, showing how these mechanisms function during social decision-making in both humans and animals. The book provides a historically rich exposition in each of its chapters and emphasizes both the accomplishments and the controversies in the field. A clear explanatory style and a single expository voice characterize all chapters, making core issues in economics, psychology, and neuroscience accessible to scholars from all disciplines. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in neuroeconomics in particular or decision making in general. Editors and contributing authors are among the acknowledged experts and founders in the field, making this the authoritative reference for neuroeconomics Suitable as an advanced undergraduate or graduate textbook as well as a thorough reference for active researchers Introductory chapters on economics, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology provide students and scholars from any discipline with the keys to understanding this interdisciplinary field Detailed chapters on subjects that include reinforcement learning, risk, inter-temporal choice, drift-diffusion models, game theory, and prospect theory make this an invaluable reference Published in association with the Society for Neuroeconomics—www.neuroeconomics.org Full-color presentation throughout with numerous carefully selected illustrations to highlight key concepts

Foundations Of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Author : Paul W. Glimcher
ISBN : 9780199744251
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 4 MB
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Neuroeconomics has emerged at the border of the social and natural sciences. This book argues that a meaningful interdisciplinary synthesis of the study of human and animal choice is not only desirable, but also well underway, and so it is time to develop formally a foundational approach for the field.

Neuroeconomics And The Decision Making Process

Author : Christiansen, Bryan
ISBN : 9781466699908
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 71 MB
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Neuroeconomics has emerged as a field of study with the goal of understanding the human decision-making process and the mental consideration of multiple outcomes based on a selected action. In particular, neuroeconomics emphasizes how economic conditions can impact and influence the decision-making process and alternately, how human actions have the power to impact economic conditions. Neuroeconomics and the Decision-Making Process presents the latest research on the relationship between neuroscience, economics, and human decision-making, including theoretical foundations, real-world applications, and models for implementation. Taking a cross-disciplinary approach to neuroeconomic theory and study, this publication is an essential reference source for economists, psychologists, business professionals, and graduate-level students across disciplines.

Wie Eine Volkswirtschaft W Chst

Author : Peter D. Schiff
ISBN : 9783942888547
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 75. 55 MB
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"Halten Sie einen Vortrag über Volkswirtschaft, und Sie werden sehen, wie schnell Ihr Publikum müde wird. Erzählen Sie Ihren Zuhörern jedoch eine Geschichte, über die sie schmunzeln können, dann sind Sie in der Lage, ihnen fast alles beizubringen." Getreu diesem Motto lehrte der berühmte Ökonom Irwin Schiff seine Söhne die Grundlagen der Volkswirtschaft. Die Geschichte, die er Ihnen dazu erzählte, haben Peter und Andrew Schiff nun aufgeschrieben. Klug und amüsant an die heutige Zeit angepasst zeigen sie, wie politisches und ökonomisches Fehlverhalten den Zusammenbruch ganzer Volkswirtschaften auslösen können. Ihr Buch ist eine Fabel darüber, wie Politik und menschliche Schwächen dazu führen, dass die Gesetze von Angebot und Nachfrage missachtet werden - was bei allen Beteiligten zu massiven finanziellen Kopfschmerzen führt. Das Buch wurde im Rahmen der Frankfurter Buchmesse 2010 mit dem International Book Award 2010 ausgezeichnet.

Neuroeconomics The Odyssey

Author : Varoozh Sahakian
ISBN : 9781477155202
Genre : Education
File Size : 22. 2 MB
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Armenian origin neuroeconomist, Varoozh Sahakian, holds D.B.A., Ph.D degrees in Economics & a Ph.D in Sociology. His disappointment with thetraditional neoclassical economic theory top-down"macho-biased" approach to homo-economicus, alongwith his belief that homo-sapines choicebehavior & decision-making is limited mainly by his/her biology, or in other words, economics actually is apart of biology science, motivated him to gather deepknowledge about human bilology, brain & nervoussystem, gender differences, genetic and hormonal &chemical functions. The "Female brain unearths the neoclassicaleconomic theory biases/ anomalies, " book is the first oftwo books the author has written about this newborn, yet, burgeoning field of "Neuro-economics, " a highlypromising human science approach to understandingthe neurobiological bases of human choice behaviorand decision-making processes. The author presents a very promising andblossoming scientific field, which portrays a moreaccurate and real & candid picture of human naturethan neoclassical reductionist economic theory.In many aspects, neuroeconomics approach is apositive, constructive one, helping to explain thehuman capacity for kindness and cooperation andthe centrality of fairness to social emotions, morality &norms (by-passed by many Walrasian and neoclassicaladvocates). The book, after all, introduces an economicagent who is not necessarily acquisitive automationconditioned always to narrow self-interest, likeneoclassical economic theory's unisex (macho)or unsex, but can be a female &male, young & olddecision maker. In other words, it introduces a morereal, "whole human:" A 'Homo-Neuro-Economicus.'The most outstanding initiative of the bookis the introduction of a feminist economic theory, its critical approach to the neoclassical economictheory, supported interestingly not only by sociocultural/historical insights but by neuro-biological, psychological, gender, chemical & hormonal evidence, too. The author envisions, that this challengingdiscipline is likely, once for all, to realize Adam Smith & David Hume's dream by providing;"A unified theory of human choice behaviorand decision-making in the forthcoming future."

The Neuroeconomics Of Environmental Decision Making

Author : Nik Sawe
ISBN : OCLC:944735137
Genre :
File Size : 78. 73 MB
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Mobilizing to effectively respond to climate change and other major environmental challenges requires a new way of thinking and new approaches to decision-making. This dissertation combines econometric surveys with behavioral economics and neuroimaging experiments to examine environmental decisions in two contexts: how individuals assign value to natural resources and donate to protect them, and how consumers make appliance purchases with energy-efficient options. Neuroeconomics allows us to identify the brain regions that predict behavior, and understand how neural activity in these regions may be influenced by key elements of the decision process, such as the presence of eco-labels. Part I enumerates some of the difficulties with current survey methods for obtaining the value that individuals place on natural resources and ecosystem services, and explains how neuroeconomic methods may complement these surveys. A pair of studies, one behavioral and one using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), elicited real donations from individuals to protect natural resources under threat of destructive land uses. Individuals' willingness-to-pay (WTP) was determined more by negative affect toward the destructiveness of the land use than by positive affect toward the park land under threat. Activity in the anterior insula, a brain region associated with negative affect, positively predicted donation and was increased when viewing destructive land uses, particularly in individuals with strong pro-environmental attitudes. Activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, associated with cost-benefit assessments, actually negatively predicted donation, suggesting that the region may encode the value of money withheld for one's self, rather than the donation's value in environmental benefits. Part II examines the individual drivers of consumer purchases of appliances with energy-efficient options through a national survey of 1,550 homeowners as well as an fMRI purchasing task. Individuals respond heterogeneously to the presence of the Energy Star eco-label. Moreover, when comparing consumer decisions in the national survey to an economically-rational benchmark of what individuals should be willing to pay for reductions in energy consumption, two individual differences were associated with large departures from rationality. High numeracy, or mathematical aptitude, was associated with significant underestimation of the value of energy consumption savings, while strong pro-environmental attitudes were associated with overvaluation. In the fMRI task, subjects chose whether to purchase CFL light bulbs with varying annual energy costs, some of which featured an Energy Star label, at different prices. The nucleus accumbens and caudate, both regions within the ventral striatum that are responsive to positive affect, increased activity in response to low prices and the presence of the Energy Star label. Nucleus accumbens activation also positively predicted purchase, while medial prefrontal cortex activity negatively predicted purchase. Neural response to the CFL bulbs' attributes also differed based on individuals' environmental attitudes, numeracy, and temporal discount rates. I propose that combining methods from behavioral economics and neuroeconomics can inform environmental policy and education by providing a more nuanced view of the roles of individual characteristics and information processing during environmental decision-making. These insights can then shape the design of behavioral interventions to best benefit both the individual and the environment.

Neuroeconomics

Author : Peter Politser
ISBN : 0198041683
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 60. 96 MB
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As technology has opened new windows into the brain, it has clarified what happens there when people make decisions about money. This clarity has produced a new science called neuroeconomics, which addresses diverse questions, such as why people save, buy stocks, steal, and overspend. The many different methods used in neuroeconomics have, however, often yielded unclear findings about the quality of these decisions, primarily because the field has lacked both guidelines for categorizing the different aspects of quality, and guidelines for selecting methods to study these aspects. Before this book, in which Peter Politser guides the reader through the different regions of study, there was no scientific guide for those interested in neuroeconomics. Politser shows how to evaluate specific elements of choice, such as regret, expectation, risk, ambiguity, time preference, and learning, and surveys economic and behavioral models of decision making skills. He reviews the neural correlates of decisional impairments and inconsistenciesclarifying, for example, why we do not recall what we experience, experience what we expect, or like what we want, and provides detailed tables of decision-making skills, their neural correlates, and possible impairments. Politser also considers what the field of neuroeconomics may add to future conceptions of decision making, and outlines the limitations of various studies of different capacities. He then introduces a broader field for the design and interpretation of neuroeconomic studiesa neuroepidemiology of decision making. Everyone who wants to understand the research in neuroeconomics or use its methods should read this book. Its accessible text, along with an extensive glossary, will guide those with little economic or neuroscience background, and make the book an excellent supplement for courses on neuroscience and decision making.

Economics Management And Sustainability

Author : Partha Ray
ISBN : 9789811318948
Genre :
File Size : 35. 72 MB
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Neuroeconomics Hype Or Hope

Author : Caterina Marchionni
ISBN : 9781317977360
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 54 MB
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Is neuroeconomics a flimsy fad likely to pass without leaving a discernible trace in economics? Or is it a promising new field with the potential to enrich and improve economic theory? Neuroeconomics brings together a unique mix of perspectives ranging from philosophy of science to neuroeconomics practice to reflect on the promises and limitations of neuroeconomics for the future of economics. The analyses collected in the volume suggest that although neuroeconomics raises methodological worries that ought to be dealt with, it might contribute to economics in various ways, some perhaps more promising than others. One thing comes out clearly, though: a complete insulation of economics from neuroscience and psychology is likely to do economics more harm than good. This book was originally published as a special issue of Journal of Economic Methodology.

Das Mysterium Der Tiere

Author : Karsten Brensing
ISBN : 9783841213921
Genre : Nature
File Size : 30. 86 MB
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Was Tiere denken. Bonobos lieben Dirty Talk. Buckelwale folgen dem Diktat der Mode. Ratten feiern gern Partys, und Raben fahren auf verschneiten Dächern Snowboard. Der Biologe Karsten Brensing führt uns in eine Welt, die wir so noch nie gesehen haben – und die der unseren gar nicht so fremd ist. Er zieht hierfür neueste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse genauso heran wie seine Erfahrungen aus der Arbeit mit Tieren. Delfine rufen sich beim Namen und Orcas leben in einer über 700 000 Jahre alten Kultur. Entenküken bestehen komplizierte Tests zum abstrakten Denken und Schnecken drehen freiwillig Fitnessrunden im Hamsterrad. Hunde bestrafen Unehrlichkeit, doch können vergeben, wenn man sich entschuldigt. Spinnen treffen ihre Berufswahl auf Grundlage ihrer Persönlichkeit und individuellen Vorlieben. Brensing entführt uns zu den großen Triebfedern der Entwicklung des Geistes bei Mensch und Tier. Wer schon immer wissen wollte, was im Kopf unserer geliebten Haustiere, in einem Delfin, in einem Schwein in der Massentierhaltung oder in vielen anderen tierischen Köpfen vor sich geht, der findet in diesem Buch die Antworten, und jede neue animalische Begegnung wird zu einem spannenden Erlebnis. »Nach der Lektüre dieses Buchs werden Sie nie mehr allein sein. Sie werden mit anderen, ihrer selbst bewussten Wesen leben, und vielleicht grüßen Sie von nun an höflich den einen oder anderen Raben in Ihrer Nachbarschaft.« aus: Das Mysterium der Tiere.

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