neighborhoods crime

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Neighborhoods Crime

Author : Bursik
ISBN : 9780669246315
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40. 70 MB
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This book is an excellent resource in examining the influence that community control can have on crime.

Disorder And Decline

Author : Wesley G. Skogan
ISBN : 0520076931
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 43. 22 MB
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"Crime, disorder, and decay symbolize the decline of America's inner cities. Skogan's book is theoretically acute, methodologically sophisticated, and politically astute. It should be required reading for every urban sociologist, policy planner, and public official."--Jerome H. Skolnick, University of California, Berkeley "Panhandling, graffiti, prostitution, abandoned cars and buildings, and junk-filled lots are evidence of neighborhood disorder and decline. In this absorbing and valuable study, Skogan discusses the implications of disorder and skillfully analyzes experimental efforts undertaken to confront it in several American cities."--Gilbert Geis, University of California, Irvine "This timely book not only documents the relationship between disorder and neighborhood decline, but provides a cogent analysis of the currently favored solutions to problems such as community policing and citizen self-help."--Dr. Thomas A. Reppetto, President, Citizens Crime Commission of New York City

Divergent Social Worlds

Author : Ruth D. Peterson
ISBN : 9781610446778
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63. 99 MB
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More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race. The degree of social and economic advantage or disadvantage that each community experiences—particularly its crime rate—is most often a reflection of which group is in the majority. As Ruth Peterson and Lauren Krivo note in Divergent Social Worlds, “Race, place, and crime are still inextricably linked in the minds of the public.” This book broadens the scope of single-city, black/white studies by using national data to compare local crime patterns in five racially distinct types of neighborhoods. Peterson and Krivo meticulously demonstrate how residential segregation creates and maintains inequality in neighborhood crime rates. Based on the authors’ groundbreaking National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), Divergent Social Worlds provides a more complete picture of the social conditions underlying neighborhood crime patterns than has ever before been drawn. The study includes economic, social, and local investment data for nearly nine thousand neighborhoods in eighty-seven cities, and the findings reveal a pattern across neighborhoods of racialized separation among unequal groups. Residential segregation reproduces existing privilege or disadvantage in neighborhoods—such as adequate or inadequate schools, political representation, and local business—increasing the potential for crime and instability in impoverished non-white areas yet providing few opportunities for residents to improve conditions or leave. And the numbers bear this out. Among urban residents, more than two-thirds of all whites, half of all African Americans, and one-third of Latinos live in segregated local neighborhoods. More than 90 percent of white neighborhoods have low poverty, but this is only true for one quarter of black, Latino, and minority areas. Of the five types of neighborhoods studied, African American communities experience violent crime on average at a rate five times that of their white counterparts, with violence rates for Latino, minority, and integrated neighborhoods falling between the two extremes. Divergent Social Worlds lays to rest the popular misconception that persistently high crime rates in impoverished, non-white neighborhoods are merely the result of individual pathologies or, worse, inherent group criminality. Yet Peterson and Krivo also show that the reality of crime inequality in urban neighborhoods is no less alarming. Separate, the book emphasizes, is inherently unequal. Divergent Social Worlds lays the groundwork for closing the gap—and for next steps among organizers, policymakers, and future researchers. A Volume in the American Sociological Association’s Rose Series in Sociology

Crime Neighborhood And Public Housing

Author : Garth Davies
ISBN : 1593321449
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39. 34 MB
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Annotation Public housing projects, both in their structural design and sociodemographic make-up, constitute neighborhoods. Informal social control theory suggests that certain social factors differentially affect a neighborhood s ability to regulate aspects of residential life, including crime. Public housing neighborhoods do not, however, exist in a vacuum; they are integral parts of their surrounding environments. Neighborhoods adjacent to public housing areas are likely to be affected by its proximity. At the same time, public housing is also reciprocally influenced by its immediate neighbors. Spatial autocorrelation analysis provides evidence of spatial patterning of crime in public housing and public housing neighborhoods. Generalized estimating equations reveal the presence of both outward and inward diffusion that is sometimes, but not always, mediated by sociostructural factors. The findings suggest that policies premised on deconcentration and decentralization would reduce crime in, and otherwise benefit, both public housing neighborhoods and surrounding communities.

Solving Crime Problems In Residential Neighborhoods

Author : Judith D. Feins
ISBN : PURD:32754066682109
Genre : House & Home
File Size : 43. 5 MB
Format : PDF
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Intended to inform law enforcement officials, urban planners & architects, multifamily housing managers, & public housing administrators about place-specific crime prevention -- the diverse array of coordinated environmental design, property mgmt., & security strategies that can be employed to reduce crime & fear of crime in urban & suburban neighborhoods. Practical lessons are presented from varied sites that blend physical design & mgmt. changes consistent with community & problem-oriented policing models. Includes a rev. of research lit.; guidelines & checklists; sources of info., training & technical advice.

Solving Crime Problems In Residential Neighborhoods

Author : Judith D. Feins
ISBN : 0788170163
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30. 5 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Intended to inform law enforcement officials, urban planners & architects, multifamily housing managers, & public housing administrators about place-specific crime prevention -- the diverse array of coordinated environmental design, property mgmt., & security strategies that can be employed to reduce crime & fear of crime in urban & suburban neighborhoods. Practical lessons are presented from varied sites that blend physical design & mgmt. changes consistent with community & problem-oriented policing models. Includes a rev. of research lit.; guidelines & checklists; sources of info., training & technical advice.

Neighborhood Structure Crime And Fear Of Crime

Author : Clete Snell
ISBN : 1931202079
Genre : Law
File Size : 89. 88 MB
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The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a test of Bursik and Grasmick's systemic theory of neighborhood crime control. This study is important for several reasons. The first is because Shaw and McKay were among the first criminologists to identify a relationship between ecologically disadvantaged neighborhoods and crime rates. However, their explanation for the process of why neighborhoods are important for understanding crime has been challenged. Bursik and Grasmick's theory has the promise of explaining the mechanisms by which neighborhoods influence crime. A second rationale for this research is that tests of two different dependent variables are conducted, crime rates and fear of crime, with the same theoretical model. Third, with this research, a test is conducted of a relatively new, important theory that has not yet been fully tested. Finally, this book utilizes two different statistical techniques, ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and hierarchical linear analysis, to test the same theoretical model. This has the potential to contribute to the statistical debate concerning the better method to test neighborhood or community-level theories. With hierarchical linear analysis, models of two or three levels of analysis can be tested. The method also allows for an understanding of neighborhood versus individual effects.

Breaking Away From Broken Windows

Author : Ralph B. Taylor
ISBN : 0813397588
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34. 14 MB
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In Breaking Away from Broken Windows Ralph Taylor uses data on recent Baltimore crime-reduction efforts to attack the ’broken windows’ thesis--that is, the currently fashionable notion that by reducing or eliminating superficial signs of disorder (dilapidated buildings, graffiti, incivil behavior by teenagers, etc.), urban police deparments can make significant and lasting reductions in crime. Taylor argues that such measures, while useful, are only a partial solution to the problem at hand. His data supports a materialist view: changes in levels of physical decay, superficial social disorder, and racial composition do not lead to higher crime, while economic decline does. He contends that the Baltimore example shows that in order to make real, long-term reductions in crime, urban politicians, businesses, and community leaders must work together to improve the economic fortunes of those living in high-crime areas.

Safe Homes Safe Neighborhoods

Author : Stephanie Mann
ISBN : 087337195X
Genre : Law
File Size : 56. 80 MB
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Offers valuable advice for protecting people, homes, and property from crime, including how to form a neighborhood crime prevention group, community projects for child safety, and more. Original.

Imprisoning Communities How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Author : City University of New York Todd R Clear Distinguished Professor John Jay College of Criminal Justice
ISBN : 9780198041672
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44. 8 MB
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At no time in history, and certainly in no other democratic society, have prisons been filled so quickly and to such capacity than in the United States. And nowhere has this growth been more concentrated than in the disadvantaged--and primarily minority--neighborhoods of America's largest urban cities. In the most impoverished places, as much as 20% of the adult men are locked up on any given day, and there is hardly a family without a father, son, brother, or uncle who has not been behind bars. While the effects of going to and returning home from prison are well-documented, little attention has been paid to the impact of removal on neighborhoods where large numbers of individuals have been imprisoned. In the first detailed, empirical exploration of the effects of mass incarceration on poor places, Imprisoning Communities demonstrates that in high doses incarceration contributes to the very social problems it is intended to solve: it breaks up family and social networks; deprives siblings, spouses, and parents of emotional and financial support; and threatens the economic and political infrastructure of already struggling neighborhoods. Especially at risk are children who, research shows, are more likely to commit a crime if a father or brother has been to prison. Clear makes the counterintuitive point that when incarceration concentrates at high levels, crime rates will go up. Removal, in other words, has exactly the opposite of its intended effect: it destabilizes the community, thus further reducing public safety. Demonstrating that the current incarceration policy in urban America does more harm than good, from increasing crime to widening racial disparities and diminished life chances for youths, Todd Clear argues that we cannot overcome the problem of mass incarceration concentrated in poor places without incorporating an idea of community justice into our failing correctional and criminal justice systems.

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