natural gas conversion v studies in surface science and catalysis

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Hydrocarbon Chemistry 2 Volume Set

Author : George A. Olah
ISBN : 9781119390510
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 27 MB
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This book provides an unparalleled contemporary assessment of hydrocarbon chemistry – presenting basic concepts, current research, and future applications. • Comprehensive and updated review and discussion of the field of hydrocarbon chemistry • Includes literature coverage since the publication of the previous edition • Expands or adds coverage of: carboxylation, sustainable hydrocarbons, extraterrestrial hydrocarbons • Addresses a topic of special relevance in contemporary science, since hydrocarbons play a role as a possible replacement for coal, petroleum oil, and natural gas as well as their environmentally safe use • Reviews of prior edition: “...literature coverage is comprehensive and ideal for quickly reviewing specific topics...of most value to industrial chemists...” (Angewandte Chemie) and “...useful for chemical engineers as well as engineers in the chemical and petrochemical industries.” (Petroleum Science and Technology)

Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Author : George A. Olah
ISBN : 0471461385
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 72 MB
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Hydrocarbons and their transformations play major roles inchemistry as raw materials and sources of energy. Diminishingpetroleum supplies, regulatory problems, and environmental concernsconstantly challenge chemists to rethink and redesign theindustrial applications of hydrocarbons. Written by NobelPrize-winner George Olah and hydrocarbon expert ÁrpádMolnár, the completely revised and expanded Second Edition ofHydrocarbon Chemistry provides an unparalleled contemporaryassessment of the field, presenting basic concepts, currentresearch, and future applications. Hydrocarbon Chemistry begins by discussing the general aspects ofhydrocarbons, the separation of hydrocarbons from natural sources,and the synthesis from C1 precursors with recent developments forpossible future applications. Each successive chapter deals with aspecific type of hydrocarbon transformation. The Second Editionincludes a new section on the chemical reduction of carbondioxide–focusing on catalytic, ionic, electrocatalytic,photocatalytic, and ezymatic reductions–as well as a newchapter on new catalysts and activation methods, combinatorialchemistry, and environmental chemistry. Other topics coveredinclude: Major processes of the petrochemical industry, such ascracking, reforming, isomerization, and alkylation Derivation reactions to form carbon-heteroatom bonds Hydrocarbon oxidations Metathesis Oligomerization and polymerization of hydrocarbons All chapters have been updated by adding sections on recentdevelopments to review new advances and results. Essential readingfor practicing scientists in industry, polymer and catalyticchemists, as well as researchers and graduate students, HydrocarbonChemistry, Second Edition remains the benchmark text in itsfield.

Natural Gas Conversion Vii

Author : Xinhe Bao
ISBN : 0080473547
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 22 MB
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This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 7th Natural gas Conversion Symposium held in Dalian, China, June 6-10, 2004, and a FREE CD-rom. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings.The manuscripts have been divided into eight different topics, Industrial Processes, Economics, Technology Demonstration and Commercial Activities;, Production of Hydrogen from Methane, Methanol, and Other Sources; Production of Synthesis; Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Hydrocarbons; From Synthesis Gas to; Catalytic Combustion; From Natural Gas to Chemicals; Light Hydrocarbons; and Production and Conversion . These are the most interesting subjects in the utilization of natural gas with recent scientific innovation and technological advances. The book is of interest to all students and researchers active in utilization of natural gas. - This book contains the papers of the symposium that is considered to be the premier technical meeting in this area. - The chapters give an overview of the latest developments in utilization of natural gas. - Topics included in the book are: Industrial Processes, Economics, Technology Demonstration and Commercial Activities;, Production of Hydrogen from Methane, Methanol, and Other Sources; Production of Synthesis; Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Hydrocarbons; From Synthesis Gas to; Catalytic Combustion; From Natural Gas to Chemicals; Light Hydrocarbons; and Production and Conversion.

Review Of Doe S Vision 21 Research And Development Program

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309168619
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 48 MB
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The Vision 21 Program is a relatively new research and development (R&D) program. It is funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The Vision 21 Program Plan anticipates that Vision 21 facilities will be able to convert fossil fuels (e.g., coal, natural gas, and petroleum coke) into electricity, process heat, fuels, and/or chemicals cost effectively, with very high efficiency and very low emissions, including of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). The goals of Vision 21 are extremely challenging and ambitious. As noted in the Vision 21 Technology Roadmap, if the program meets its goals, Vision 21 plants would essentially eliminate many of the environmental concerns traditionally associated with the conversion of fossil fuels into electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals (NETL, 2001). Given the importance of fossil fuels, and especially coal, to the economies of the United States and other countries and the need to utilize fossil fuels in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, the development of the technologies in the Vision 21 Program is a high priority. This report contains the results of the second National Research Council (NRC) review of the Vision 21 R&D Program.

Natural Gas Conversion Vi

Author : T.H. Fleisch
ISBN : 0080537316
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 67 MB
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This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Sumposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volum. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings.

Natural Gas Conversion V

Author : A. Parmaliana
ISBN : 0080537308
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30. 83 MB
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On January 1988, the ascertained and economically accessible reserves of Natural Gas (NG) amounted to over 144,000 billion cubic meters worldwide, corresponding to 124 billion tons of oil equivalents (comparable with the liquid oil reserves, which are estimated to be 138 billion TOE). It is hypothesized that the volume of NG reserve will continue to grow at the same rate of the last decade. Forecasts on production indicate a potential increase from about 2,000 billion cubic meters in 1990 to not more than 3,300 billion cubic meters in 2010, even in a high economic development scenario. NG consumption represents only one half of oil: 1.9 billion TOE/y as compared to 3.5 of oil. Consequently, in the future gas will exceed oil as a carbon atom source. In the future the potential for getting energetic vectors or petrochemicals from NG will continue to grow. The topics covered in Natural Gas Conversion V reflect the large global R&D effort to look for new and economic ways of NG exploitation. These range from the direct conversion of methane and light paraffins to the indirect conversion through synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals. Particularly underlined and visible are the technologies already commercially viable. These proceedings prove that mature and technologically feasible processes for natural gas conversion are already available and that new and improved catalytic approaches are currently developing, the validity and feasibility of which will soon be documented. This is an exciting area of modern catalysis, which will certainly open novel and rewarding perspectives for the chemical, energy and petrochemical industries.

Selective Oxidation By Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author : Gabriele Centi
ISBN : 9781461541752
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 19 MB
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Selective Oxidation by Heterogeneous Catalysis covers one of the major areas of industrial petrochemical production, outlining open questions and new opportunities. It gives keys for the interpretation and analysis of data and design of new catalysts and reactions, and provides guidelines for future research. A distinctive feature of this book is the use of concept by example. Rather than reporting an overview of the literature results, the authors have selected some representative examples, the in-depth analysis of which makes it possible to clarify the fundamental, but new concepts necessary for a better understanding of the new opportunities in this field and the design of new catalysts or catalytic reactions. Attention is given not only to the catalyst itself, but also to the use of the catalyst inside the process, thus evidencing the relationship between catalyst design and engineering aspects of the process. This book provides suggestions for new innovative directions of research and indications on how to reconsider the field of selective oxidation from different perspectives, outlining that is not a mature field of research, but that new important breakthroughs can be derived from fundamental and applied research. Suggestions are offered on how to use less conventional approaches in terms of both catalyst design and analysis of the data.

Potential For Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement In The Long Term

Author : J. de Beer
ISBN : 9789401727280
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 52 MB
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This book does not give a prediction of what the efficiency will be of the energy use of industrial processes in the future. However, it does give an exploration of limits to the efficiency of current processes and an indication of what might be achieved if new technologies can be developed. At the Department of Science, Technology and Society of Utrecht University research had been done to the opportunities for improvement of the energy efficiency in the short term since the 1980's. This had resulted in a comprehensive database on energy efficient measures. This database and a possible application are described in Chapter 3 of this book. The use of the database induced new research themes around efficiency improvement, e.g. concerning barriers for implementation of measures. It was around 1993 that I did a preliminary study to the potential for efficiency improvement in the long term. Historical analysis had shown us that the short term potential stayed constant over the years. It seemed to be replenished by the introduction of new technologies. This lead to the question whether there are limits to the efficiency, taking into account both thermodynamic considerations and ideas on the development and dissemination of new technologies.

Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Author : George Andrew Olah
ISBN : STANFORD:36105009809208
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 45 MB
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Chemists today are under the gun to find solutions to a host of tough new challenges, including diminishing oil reserves, an array of environmental hazards, and ever more stringent government regulations. Now this book helps meet these challenges by bringing together, for the first time in one volume, all major aspects of contemporary hydrocarbon chemistry. Hydrocarbon Chemistry functions equally well as a working professional reference and an advanced-level student text. Each of its twelve chapters treats a specific type of hydrocarbon transformation and reviews, in depth, all related basic chemistry-including reactivity, selectivity, stereochemistry, and numerous mechanistic aspects-as well as a wide range of practical applications. Offers comprehensive coverage of the chemistry of alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and dienes, acetylenes, and aromatics Includes developments in the field through early 1994 Treats all important aspects of the chemistry involved in hydrocarbon transformations Emphasizes the chemistry of processes used in the petrochemical industry, including cracking, reforming, isomerization, and alkylation Reviews, in detail, derivation reactions to form carbon heteroatom bonds as well as both traditional and recent hydrocarbon oxidation techniques Numerous formulas and flowsheets help illuminate all important concepts and practical processes discussed Destined to be the definitive work on the subject well into the twenty-first century, Hydrocarbon Chemistry is an indispensable resource for chemical and petroleum engineers; industrial researchers in organic, physical organic, and inorganic chemistry; and students of those and other related disciplines.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking V

Author : M.L. Occelli
ISBN : 0080531717
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 24 MB
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Catalyst production for the transformation of crudes into gasoline and other fuel products is a billion dollar/year business and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) represent almost half of the refinery catalyst market. During the cracking reactions, the FCC surface is contaminated by metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by coke deposition. As a result, the catalyst activity and product selectivity is reduced to unacceptable levels thus forcing refiners to replace part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC inventory with fresh FCC to compensate for losses in catalyst performance. About 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used worldwide in over 200 fluid cracking catalyst units (FCCUs). It is for these reasons that refiners' interest in FCC research has remained high through the years almost independantly, of crude oil prices. However, recent oil company mergers and the dissolution of research laboratories, have drastically decreased the number of researchers involved in petroleum refining research projects; as a result the emphasis of research has shifted from new materials to process improvements and this trend is clearly reflected in the type of papers contained in this volume. Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential in the understanding of catalyst performance and several chapters in the book describe the use of 27Al, 29Si and 13C NMR to study variation in FCC acidity during aging and coke deposition. In addition several chapters have been dedicated to the modeling of FCC deactivation, and to the understanding of contact times on FCC performance. Refiners efforts to conform with environmental regulations are reflected in chapters dealing with sulfur removal, metals contaminants and olefin generation.

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