moral tribes emotion reason and the gap between us and them

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Moral Tribes

Author : Joshua Greene
ISBN : 9781782393382
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 32. 13 MB
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A ground-breaking and ambitious book that promotes a new understanding of morality, one that will help us to solve society's biggest problems. Our brains were designed for tribal life, for getting along with a select group of others (Us), and for fighting off everyone else (Them). But modern life has thrust the world's tribes into a shared space, creating conflicts of interest and clashes of values, along with unprecedented opportunities. As the world shrinks, the moral lines that divide us become more salient and more puzzling. We fight over everything from tax codes to gay marriage to global warming, and we wonder where, if at all, we can find our common ground. A grand synthesis of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy, Moral Tribes reveals the underlying causes of modern conflict and lights a way forward. Our emotions make us social animals, turning Me into Us. But they also make us tribal animals, turning Us against Them. Our tribal emotions make us fight, sometimes with bombs, sometimes with words, and often with life-and-death stakes. Drawing inspiration from moral philosophy and cutting-edge science, Moral Tribes shows when we should trust our instincts, when we should reason, and how the right kind of reasoning can move us forward. Joshua Greene is the director of Harvard University's Moral Cognition Lab, a pioneering scientist, a philosopher, and an acclaimed teacher. The great challenge of Moral Tribes is this: How can we get along with Them when what they want feels so wrong? Finally, Greene offers a surprisingly simple set of maxims for navigating the modern moral terrain, a practical road map for solving problems and living better lives.

21 Lessons For The 21st Century

Author : Yuval Noah Harari
ISBN : 9780525512189
Genre : History
File Size : 22. 63 MB
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#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • In Sapiens, he explored our past. In Homo Deus, he looked to our future. Now, one of the most innovative thinkers on the planet turns to the present to make sense of today’s most pressing issues. “Fascinating . . . a crucial global conversation about how to take on the problems of the twenty-first century.”—Bill Gates, The New York Times Book Review NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY FINANCIAL TIMES AND PAMELA PAUL, KQED How do computers and robots change the meaning of being human? How do we deal with the epidemic of fake news? Are nations and religions still relevant? What should we teach our children? Yuval Noah Harari’s 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is a probing and visionary investigation into today’s most urgent issues as we move into the uncharted territory of the future. As technology advances faster than our understanding of it, hacking becomes a tactic of war, and the world feels more polarized than ever, Harari addresses the challenge of navigating life in the face of constant and disorienting change and raises the important questions we need to ask ourselves in order to survive. In twenty-one accessible chapters that are both provocative and profound, Harari builds on the ideas explored in his previous books, untangling political, technological, social, and existential issues and offering advice on how to prepare for a very different future from the world we now live in: How can we retain freedom of choice when Big Data is watching us? What will the future workforce look like, and how should we ready ourselves for it? How should we deal with the threat of terrorism? Why is liberal democracy in crisis? Harari’s unique ability to make sense of where we have come from and where we are going has captured the imaginations of millions of readers. Here he invites us to consider values, meaning, and personal engagement in a world full of noise and uncertainty. When we are deluged with irrelevant information, clarity is power. Presenting complex contemporary challenges clearly and accessibly, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is essential reading. “If there were such a thing as a required instruction manual for politicians and thought leaders, Israeli historian Yuval Noah Harari’s 21 Lessons for the 21st Century would deserve serious consideration. In this collection of provocative essays, Harari . . . tackles a daunting array of issues, endeavoring to answer a persistent question: ‘What is happening in the world today, and what is the deep meaning of these events?’”—BookPage (top pick)

Morality And Public Policy

Author : Clem Henricson
ISBN : 9781447323822
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69. 64 MB
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Spanning religion, moral philosophy and scientific understanding of the human conditions, this unique book adds to the latest thinking on morality, proposing ways to enhance the capacity of public policy to respond to morality and associated shifts in social mores in different cultural settings.

Science Unlimited

Author : Maarten Boudry
ISBN : 9780226498287
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 59 MB
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All too often in contemporary discourse, we hear about science overstepping its proper limits—about its brazenness, arrogance, and intellectual imperialism. The problem, critics say, is scientism: the privileging of science over all other ways of knowing. Science, they warn, cannot do or explain everything, no matter what some enthusiasts believe. In Science Unlimited?, noted philosophers of science Maarten Boudry and Massimo Pigliucci gather a diverse group of scientists, science communicators, and philosophers of science to explore the limits of science and this alleged threat of scientism. In this wide-ranging collection, contributors ask whether the term scientism in fact (or in belief) captures an interesting and important intellectual stance, and whether it is something that should alarm us. Is scientism a well-developed position about the superiority of science over all other modes of human inquiry? Or is it more a form of excessive confidence, an uncritical attitude of glowing admiration? What, if any, are its dangers? Are fears that science will marginalize the humanities and eradicate the human subject—that it will explain away emotion, free will, consciousness, and the mystery of existence—justified? Does science need to be reined in before it drives out all other disciplines and ways of knowing? Both rigorous and balanced, Science Unlimited? interrogates our use of a term that is now all but ubiquitous in a wide variety of contexts and debates. Bringing together scientists and philosophers, both friends and foes of scientism, it is a conversation long overdue.

Author : Stuart Brown
ISBN : 9786035038867
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 55. 79 MB
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نستكشف من خلال اللَّعب كيف يسير عالمنا، وكيف يتفاعل الأصدقاء مع بعضهم، ونتعلم تفسير كثير من الغموض والإثارة التي يمكن أن تواجهنا في الحياة؛ فربُّ الأسرة يستطيع من خلال اللَّعب مع عائلته وضع قوانين ودساتير تنظم حياة أولاده، فضلاً عن أنه يكتشف عن طريق هذه الأنشطة السلبيات فيقوِّمها، والإيجابيات فيعززها، ويشيع جوًّا من الألفة، ويزيد الترابط الاجتماعي، ويخلف ذكريات جميلة لا تُنسى. أما الأصدقاء، سواء أكانوا أصدقاء دراسة، أم مهنة، أم وظيفة، أم أيَّ مجال من مجالات الحياة، فإن اللَّعب يشيع في الفريق جوًّا من الألفة والمحبة، ويجدِّد الروابط، ويُقدِّم نشاطًا ودفعًا معنويًّا لزيادة العمل والإنتاج. إذًا، اللَّعب ليس للأطفال أو لتضييع الوقت بما لا طائل منه، وإنما هو أساس التفكير الحضاري، والجوهر الذي يجعل الحياة تنبض بالحيوية والنشاط، إنه لأفراد المجتمع كلهم على اختلاف فئاتهم، علاوة على أنه للأعمار كلها أيضًا. يبحث هذا الكتاب في فهم اللَّعب، واستخدامه في العثور على الحقائق التي تعتمل في أنفسنا، وكيفية التعبير عنها؛ إنه يدور حول تسخير القوة التي تشكلت في دواخلنا، تلك القوة التي تتيح لنا اكتشاف أعماقنا وتوسيع عالمنا. - هل تحب اللَّعب؟ - هل تظن أن اللَّعب مضيعة للوقت؟ - هل تلعب مع أطفالك؟ - هل تشعر بالذنب إذا فقدت بعض وقتك في اللَّعب؟ العبيكان 2017

The Point Of View Of The Universe

Author : Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek
ISBN : 9780191022432
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65. 55 MB
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What does the idea of taking 'the point of view of the universe' tell us about ethics? The great nineteenth-century utilitarian Henry Sidgwick used this metaphor to present what he took to be a self-evident moral truth: the good of one individual is of no more importance than the good of any other. Ethical judgments, he held, are objective truths that we can know by reason. The ethical axioms he took to be self-evident provide a foundation for utilitarianism. He supplements this foundation with an argument that nothing except states of consciousness have ultimate value, which led him to hold that pleasure is the only thing that is intrinsically good. Are these claims defensible? Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer test them against a variety of views held by contemporary writers in ethics, and conclude that they are. This book is therefore a defence of objectivism in ethics, and of hedonistic utilitarianism. The authors also explore, and in most cases support, Sidgwick's views on many other key questions in ethics: how to justify an ethical theory, the significance of an evolutionary explanation of our moral judgments, the choice between preference-utilitarianism and hedonistic utilitarianism, the conflict between self-interest and universal benevolence, whether something that it would be wrong to do openly can be right if kept secret, how demanding utilitarianism is, whether we should discount the future, or favor those who are worse off, the moral status of animals, and what is an optimum population.

Shaping Our Selves

Author : Erik Parens
ISBN : 9780190211776
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 24. 53 MB
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When bioethicists debate the use of technologies like surgery and pharmacology to shape our selves, they are, ultimately, debating what it means for human beings to flourish. They are debating what makes animals like us truly happy, and whether the technologies at issue will bring us closer to or farther from such happiness. The positions that participants adopt in debates regarding such ancient and fundamental questions are often polarized, and cannot help but be deeply personal. It is no wonder that the debates are sometimes acrimonious. How, then, should critics of and enthusiasts about technological self-transformation move forward? Based on his experience at the oldest free-standing bioethics research institute in the world, Erik Parens proposes a habit of thinking, which he calls "binocular." As our brains integrate slightly different information from our two eyes to achieve depth of visual perception, we need to try to integrate greatly different insights on the two sides of the debates about technologically shaping our selves-if depth of intellectual understanding is what we are after. Binocular thinking lets us benefit from the insights that are visible from the stance of the enthusiast, who emphasizes that using technology to creatively transform our selves will make us happier, and to benefit from the insights that are visible from the stance of the critic, who emphasizes that learning to let our selves be will make us happier. Parens observes that in debates as personal as these, we all-critics and enthusiasts alike-give reasons that we are partial to. In the throes of our passion to make our case, we exaggerate our insights and all-too-often fall into the conceptual traps that language sets for us. Foolishly, we make conceptual choices that no one who truly wanted understanding would accept: Are technologies value-free or value-laden? Are human beings by nature creators or creatures? Is disability a medical or a social phenomenon? Indeed, are we free or determined? Parens explains how participating in these debates for two decades helped him articulate the binocular habit of thinking that is better at benefiting from the insights in both poles of those binaries than was the habit of thinking he originally brought to the debates. Finally, Parens celebrates that bioethics doesn't aspire only to deeper thinking, but also to better acting. He embraces not only the intellectual aspiration to think deeply about meaning questions that don't admit of final answers, but also the ethical demand to give clear answers to practical questions. To show how to respect both that aspiration and that demand, the book culminates in the description of a process of truly informed consent, in the context of one specific form of using technology to shape our selves: families making decisions about appearance normalizing surgeries for children with atypical bodies.

Identified Versus Statistical Lives

Author : I. Glenn Cohen
ISBN : 9780190217501
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 43. 31 MB
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The identified lives effect describes the fact that people demonstrate a stronger inclination to assist persons and groups identified as at high risk of great harm than those who will or already suffer similar harm, but endure unidentified. As a result of this effect, we allocate resources reactively rather than proactively, prioritizing treatment over prevention. For example, during the August 2010 gold mine cave-in in Chile, where ten to twenty million dollars was spent by the Chilean government to rescue the 33 miners trapped underground. Rather than address the many, more cost effective mine safety measures that should have been implemented, the Chilean government and international donors concentrated efforts in large-scale missions that concerned only the specific group. Such bias as illustrated through this incident raises practical and ethical questions that extend to almost every aspect of human life and politics. What can social and cognitive sciences teach us about the origin and triggers of the effect? Philosophically and ethically, is the effect a "bias" to be eliminated or is it morally justified? What implications does the effect have for health care, law, the environment and other practice domains? This volume is the first to take an interdisciplinary approach toward answering this issue of identified versus statistical lives by considering a variety of perspectives from psychology, public health, law, ethics, and public policy.

The Art Of Communication In Nursing And Health Care

Author : Theresa Raphael-Grimm, PhD, CNS
ISBN : 9780826110565
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77. 89 MB
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A handy guide to tackling difficult patient and professional interactions with confidence and compassion In this age of increasing reliance on technology, it is essential that the fundamentals of compassion and good communication—the art of patient care—remain at the heart of health care. This clear, concise guide to professional communication strategies helps nurses and other health care clinicians to build effective patient relationships and navigate a wide variety of difficult patient and professional interactions. Written by a practicing psychotherapist who has devoted nearly 30 years of study to clinician—patient relationships, the book tackles such complex issues as dealing with demanding patients, maintaining professional boundaries, overcoming biases and stereotypes, managing clinician emotions, communicating bad news, challenging a colleague’s clinical opinion, and other common scenarios. The book guides the reader through a conceptual framework for building effective relationships that is based on the principles of mindfulness. These principles are embedded in discussions of the fundamental elements of interpersonal effectiveness, such as hope, empathy, and listening. Chapters apply mindfulness principles to specific challenging situations with concrete examples that describe effective clinical behaviors as well as situations depicting pitfalls that may impede compassionate care. From a focus on everyday manners in difficult situations to beneficial approaches with challenging populations, the guide helps health care professionals confidently resolve common problems. Brief, to-the-point chapters help clinicians channel their clinical knowledge and good intentions into caring behaviors that allow the patient to more fully experience empathy and compassion. With the guiding theme of “using words as precision instruments,” this is a resource that will be referred to again and again. Key Features: • Helps health care professionals and nurses communicate effectively in challenging clinical and professional situations • Uses the principles of mindfulness to build satisfying relationships and resolve problems • Addresses such difficult issues as demanding patients, maintaining boundaries, overcoming biases, managing clinician emotions, and much more • Provides special tips for communicating with family members and caregivers • Authored by a practicing psychotherapist specializing in clinician—patient relationships for nearly 30 years

Outposts Of Hope

Author : Douglas D. Webster
ISBN : 9781498200677
Genre : Religion
File Size : 75. 29 MB
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The original recipients of the Letter of First Peter inhabited a radically different social context from our own. We do not live under Roman imperial rule. Slave labor is not the driving force of our economy. Women are not under patriarchal domination in our culture as they once were. Society has changed, but what is beyond dispute is that Western culture remains antithetical to God's will and hostile to the Jesus way. The imperial Caesar has been replaced by the imperial self. The Pax Romana has been replaced by the American Dream. Western capitalism still trades in the bodies and souls of human beings. Culture obsesses over sexual freedom and material indulgence. Idolatry is pervasive. Autonomous individualism is the ideal. First Peter is about the inevitable clash with culture that ensues because of the good news of Jesus Christ. The Apostle Peter's bottom-up profile of costly discipleship is far more radical than we may realize. Hostility against the church is the believer's opportunity under pressure to reveal the goodness of God. Suffering and submission are essential for Peter's Christ for culture strategy. Sacrifice is the leverage of the gospel. Cross-bearing humility is the strategy for relating to culture and Christlike humility is essential for living in the household of God.

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