milestones in microwave chemistry springerbriefs in molecular science

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Milestones In Microwave Chemistry

Author : György Keglevich
ISBN : 9783319306322
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 60 MB
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This book looks back on thirty-five years of microwave (MW) chemistry and explains how the application of the MW technique became an integral part of R&D, eventually becoming recognized in industry. Further, it details how MW chemistry has undergone a dynamic development in the past three decades, one driven by the advent of increasingly sophisticated professional MW reactors in place of the kitchen MW ovens used in earlier years. A major part of the book shows how substitutions, esterifications, amidations, hydrolyses, alkylations, eliminations, dehydrations, condensations, cyclizations, C–C couplings and the modification of heterocycles can be performed advantageously under MW irradiation, as the reaction times are shorter, while the selectivity and yields are higher; it also explains why in most cases, the reactions can be performed under solvent-free conditions. MW irradiation within the sphere of organophosphorus chemistry is showcased and typical reactions, such as the direct derivatization of phosphinic acids, alkylating esterifications, Diels–Alder reactions, the inverse Wittig-type reaction, fragmentations, the Arbuzov reaction, the synthesis of α-hydroxyphosphonates and α-aminophosphonates (the Kabachnik–Fields condensation), deoxygenations and P–C coupling reactions are described under MW conditions. In closing, the advantages of MW chemistry such as faster reactions and the possibility of simplifying the catalytic systems are addressed.

Microwave Chemistry

Author : Giancarlo Cravotto
ISBN : 9783110479935
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 85 MB
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Microwave Chemistry has changed the way to work in chemical laboratories and is an established state-of-the-art technology to accelarate and enhance chemical processes. This book not only gives an overview of the technology, its historical development and theoretical background, but also presents its exceptionally broad spectrum of applications. Microwave Chemistry enables graduate students and scientist to learn and apply its methods successfully.

Organophosphorus Chemistry

Author : John C. Tebby
ISBN : 9781788011679
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 91 MB
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Coverage in this annual review of the literature presents a comprehensive and critical survey of the vast field of study involving organophosphorus compounds. From phosphines and related P-C bonded compounds through tervalent phosphorus acid derivatives, phosphine chalcogenides, and recent developments in green synthetic approaches in organophosphorus chemistry, the volume reflects established and current interests in the area. With an emphasis on interdisciplinary content, this book is aimed at the worldwide organic chemistry and engineering research communities.

Sustainable C Sp3 H Bond Functionalization

Author : Jin Xie
ISBN : 9783662494967
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 64 MB
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This book highlights major achievements made in the last five years concerning sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization and offers a promising and emerging tool-kit for organic synthesis. The book is divided into three chapters demonstrating key advances in C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. Chapter 1 reviews transition-metal-catalyzed C(sp3)-H bond functionalization using different directing groups, while Chapter 2 addresses the new methods of transition-metal-catalyzed and metal-free C(sp3)-H bond functionalization without directing groups, in addition to briefly highlighting redox-neutral C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. In closing, Chapter 3 examines visible-light photoredox catalysis, an emerging and highly sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization strategy. The book offers an intriguing and useful reference guide for a broad readership working and/or interested in the fields of organic, organometallic, and green chemistry.

Mww Type Titanosilicate

Author : Peng Wu
ISBN : 9783642391156
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 37 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive review of a new generation of selective oxidation titanosilicate catalysts with the MWW topology (Ti-MWW) based on the research achievements of the past 12 years. It gives an overview of the synthesis, structure modification and catalytic properties of Ti-MWW. Ti-MWW can readily be prepared by means of direct hydrothermal synthesis with crystallization-supporting agents, using dual-structure-directing agents and a dry-gel conversion technique. It also can be post-synthesized through unique reversible structure transformation and liquid-phase isomorphous substitution. The structural conversion of Ti-MWW into the materials usable for processing large molecules is summarized. Taking advantage of the structure diversity of the lamellar precursor of Ti-MWW, it can be fully or partially delaminated, and undergo interlayer silylation to obtain a novel structure with larger porosity. In the selective oxidation (alkene epoxidation and ketone/aldehyde ammoximation) with hydrogen peroxide or organic peroxide as an oxidant, the unique catalytic properties of Ti-MWW are described in comparison to conventional titanosilicates such as TS-1 and Ti-Beta.

Green Synthetic Approaches For Biologically Relevant Heterocycles

Author : Goutam Brahmachari
ISBN : 9780128005903
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 50 MB
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Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes. Each clearly structured chapter features in-depth coverage of various green protocols for the synthesis of a wide variety of bioactive heterocycles classified on the basis of ring-size and/or presence of heteratoms(s). Techniques covered include microwave heating, ultrasound, ionic liquids, solid phase, solvent-free, heterogeneous catalysis, and aqueous media, along with multi-component reaction strategies. This book also integrates advances in green chemistry research into industrial applications and process developments. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in medicinal, organic, natural product, and agricultural chemistry. Includes global coverage of a wide variety of green synthetic techniques Features cutting-edge research in the field of bioactive heterocyclic compounds Focuses extensively on applications, with numerous examples of biologically relevant heterocycles

Climate Fire And Human Evolution

Author : Andrew Y. Glikson
ISBN : 9783319225128
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 79 MB
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.

High Energy Charged Particles

Author : Shu Seki
ISBN : 9784431556848
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 60 MB
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This book features comprehensive explanations from the classical theory of high-energy particle interactions with matter to their use for a novel nanofabrication technique for various organic soft materials. Potential readers include scientists and engineers in both academia and industry, as well as students of materials science, nanotechnology, and nuclear power engineering. Readers will learn about the historical research background of radiation chemistry and interactions of an accelerated particle with matter, and then move on to recent research topics having to do with nanofabrication of soft materials by using single charged particles with high energy. Target materials of the highlighted novel technique include proteins, thermo-responsive and photo-responsive polymers, semiconducting polymers, and even small organic molecules. The descriptions of these various newly developed nanomaterials will interest a broad spectrum of readers and provide them with a new perspective. The many conceptual illustrations and microscopic images of nanomaterials that are included will help readers to easily understand the contents of the book.

Pharmacological Potential Of Selected Natural Compounds In The Control Of Parasitic Diseases

Author : Gabriela Hrckova
ISBN : 9783709113257
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 37 MB
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The natural world with a large number of terrestrial and marine plants and lower organisms is a great source of bioactive compounds historically used as remedies in various diseases. Within the last decade, such compounds became more attractive targets for pharmacologists and the pharmaceutical industry in drug development projects. This volume presents the pharmacological potential of chemically defined natural compounds obtained from plants, fungi, algae and cyanobacteria with antiparasitic activity, that have been tested against various endo-parasitic protozoan and helminth species. Additionally, the advantages of combined therapy using antiparasitic drugs and natural compounds with selected specific activity are reviewed and explained in the context of host pathology and immunosuppression induced by the parasites. The conclusions of this new book give suggestions for further non-empirical drug development and discuss perspectives of alternative approaches to therapy of parasitic diseases. ​

Chemical Thermodynamics And Information Theory With Applications

Author : Daniel J. Graham
ISBN : 9781439820889
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 26 MB
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Thermodynamics and information touch theory every facet of chemistry. However, the physical chemistry curriculum digested by students worldwide is still heavily skewed toward heat/work principles established more than a century ago. Rectifying this situation, Chemical Thermodynamics and Information Theory with Applications explores applications drawn from the intersection of thermodynamics and information theory—two mature and far-reaching fields. In an approach that intertwines information science and chemistry, this book covers: The informational aspects of thermodynamic state equations The algorithmic aspects of transformations—compression, expansion, cyclic, and more The principles of best-practice programming How molecules transmit and modify information via collisions and chemical reactions Using examples from physical and organic chemistry, this book demonstrates how the disciplines of thermodynamics and information theory are intertwined. Accessible to curiosity-driven chemists with knowledge of basic calculus, probability, and statistics, the book provides a fresh perspective on time-honored subjects such as state transformations, heat and work exchanges, and chemical reactions.

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