methods of behavior analysis in neuroscience frontiers in neuroscience

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Methods Of Behavior Analysis In Neuroscience

Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
ISBN : 9781420041811
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 46 MB
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Using the most well-studied behavioral analyses of animal subjects to promote a better understanding of the effects of disease and the effects of new therapeutic treatments on human cognition, Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience provides a reference manual for molecular and cellular research scientists in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The materials presented draw from the scholarly works of recognized experts in several fields of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience. Each contributor describes the most frequently used and most widely accepted version of the model, and each chapter includes: (1) a well-referenced introduction that covers the theory behind and the utility of the model; (2) a detailed and step-by-step methodology; and (3) an approach to the interpretation of the data presented. Many chapters also provide examples of actual experiments that use the method. This text eliminates the guesswork from the process of designing the methodology for many of the animal behavioral models that are used to study brain disorders, drug abuse, toxicology, and cognitive drug development. It will also significantly reduce the time spent assessing literature and developing models for studying animal subjects. Overall, Methods of Behavioral Analysis in Neuroscience is an invaluable reference source for the professional who seeks to comprehend the effects of disease on human cognition.

Methods Of Behavior Analysis In Neuroscience Second Edition

Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
ISBN : 1420052349
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 7 MB
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Behavioral techniques used in animals to model human diseases and predict effects of novel drugs are as varied as the numbers of scientists who use them. Consequently, behavioral analysis is becoming an increasingly indispensable tool for the neuroscientist as information gained at the molecular and cellular level is put into practice in fully behaving animal subjects. Uses Animal Behavior Models to Examine Effects of Therapeutic Treatments on Human Cognition With contributions from more than 40 field specialists, Methods of Behavioral Analysis in Neuroscience reflects six years worth of updates to its first bestselling edition and elucidates new behavioral approaches that are quickly becoming field standards. This edition features new material on the relevance of transgenic mouse models for Alzheimer’s disease, behavioral methods for assessing the cognitive impairment associated with major psychotic disorders, the revival of the scopolamine reversal model for assessing the clinical relevance of AD drugs, and approaches to assessing cognitive impairment in aged mice. Each chapter presents theoretical background, methodology, and data interpretation, and many chapters include real-world examples of experiments that incorporate the models. With step-by-step, easy-to-reproduce methodologies, this sharply focused work covers well-studied behavioral approaches that provide a better understanding of the effects of disease and allow for better predictability of the effects of therapeutic treatments on the human cognition. It takes the guesswork out of designing the methodology for many of the most widely used animal behavioral approaches developed for the study of brain disorders, drug abuse, toxicology, and cognitive drug development.

Methods In Social Neuroscience

Author : Eddie Harmon-Jones
ISBN : 9781462506279
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 27. 64 MB
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Straightforward and practical, this is the first book to provide detailed guidance for using neurobiological methods in the study of human social behavior, personality, and affect. Each chapter clearly introduces the method at hand, provides examples of the method's applications, discusses its strengths and limitations, and reviews concrete experimental design considerations. Written by acknowledged experts, chapters cover neuroimaging techniques, genetic measurement, hormonal methods, lesion studies, startle eyeblink responses, facial electromyography, autonomic nervous system responses, and modeling based on neural networks.

Nonlinear Analysis In Neuroscience And Behavioral Research

Author : Tobias A. Mattei
ISBN : 9782889199969
Genre :
File Size : 36. 89 MB
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Although nonlinear dynamics have been mastered by physicists and mathematicians for a long time (as most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature), the recent successful application of nonlinear methods to modeling and predicting several evolutionary, ecological, physiological, and biochemical processes has generated great interest and enthusiasm among researchers in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Additionally, in the last years it has been demonstrated that nonlinear analysis can be successfully used to model not only basic cellular and molecular data but also complex cognitive processes and behavioral interactions. The theoretical features of nonlinear systems (such unstable periodic orbits, period-doubling bifurcations and phase space dynamics) have already been successfully applied by several research groups to analyze the behavior of a variety of neuronal and cognitive processes. Additionally the concept of strange attractors has lead to a new understanding of information processing which considers higher cognitive functions (such as language, attention, memory and decision making) as complex systems emerging from the dynamic interaction between parallel streams of information flowing between highly interconnected neuronal clusters organized in a widely distributed circuit and modulated by key central nodes. Furthermore, the paradigm of self-organization derived from the nonlinear dynamics theory has offered an interesting account of the phenomenon of emergence of new complex cognitive structures from random and non-deterministic patterns, similarly to what has been previously observed in nonlinear studies of fluid dynamics. Finally, the challenges of coupling massive amount of data related to brain function generated from new research fields in experimental neuroscience (such as magnetoencephalography, optogenetics and single-cell intra-operative recordings of neuronal activity) have generated the necessity of new research strategies which incorporate complex pattern analysis as an important feature of their algorithms. Up to now nonlinear dynamics has already been successfully employed to model both basic single and multiple neurons activity (such as single-cell firing patterns, neural networks synchronization, autonomic activity, electroencephalographic measurements, and noise modulation in the cerebellum), as well as higher cognitive functions and complex psychiatric disorders. Similarly, previous experimental studies have suggested that several cognitive functions can be successfully modeled with basis on the transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such studies have demonstrated that it is possible to represent typical decision-making paradigms of neuroeconomics by dynamic models governed by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points and basic heuristic rules which incorporate variable degrees of uncertainty. This e-book has include frontline research in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology involving applications of nonlinear analysis, especially regarding the representation and modeling of complex neural and cognitive systems. Several experts teams around the world have provided frontline theoretical and experimental contributions (as well as reviews, perspectives and commentaries) in the fields of nonlinear modeling of cognitive systems, chaotic dynamics in computational neuroscience, fractal analysis of biological brain data, nonlinear dynamics in neural networks research, nonlinear and fuzzy logics in complex neural systems, nonlinear analysis of psychiatric disorders and dynamic modeling of sensorimotor coordination. Rather than a comprehensive compilation of the possible topics in neuroscience and cognitive research to which non-linear may be used, this e-book intends to provide some illustrative examples of the broad range of

Decision Neuroscience

Author : Jean-Claude Dreher
ISBN : 9780128053317
Genre : Medical
File Size : 78. 60 MB
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Decision Neuroscience addresses fundamental questions about how the brain makes perceptual, value-based, and more complex decisions in non-social and social contexts. This book presents compelling neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesional, and neurocomputational models in combination with hormonal and genetic approaches, which have led to a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms behind how the brain makes decisions. The five parts of the book address distinct but inter-related topics and are designed to serve both as classroom introductions to major subareas in decision neuroscience and as advanced syntheses of all that has been accomplished in the last decade. Part I is devoted to anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and optogenetics animal studies on reinforcement-guided decision making, such as the representation of instructions, expectations, and outcomes; the updating of action values; and the evaluation process guiding choices between prospective rewards. Part II covers the topic of the neural representations of motivation, perceptual decision making, and value-based decision making in humans, combining neurcomputational models and brain imaging studies. Part III focuses on the rapidly developing field of social decision neuroscience, integrating recent mechanistic understanding of social decisions in both non-human primates and humans. Part IV covers clinical aspects involving disorders of decision making that link together basic research areas including systems, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience; this part examines dysfunctions of decision making in neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, behavioral addictions, and focal brain lesions. Part V focuses on the roles of various hormones (cortisol, oxytocin, ghrelin/leptine) and genes that underlie inter-individual differences observed with stress, food choices, and social decision-making processes. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in decision making neuroscience. With contributions that are forward-looking assessments of the current and future issues faced by researchers, Decision Neuroscience is essential reading for anyone interested in decision-making neuroscience. Provides comprehensive coverage of approaches to studying individual and social decision neuroscience, including primate neurophysiology, brain imaging in healthy humans and in various disorders, and genetic and hormonal influences on decision making Covers multiple levels of analysis, from molecular mechanisms to neural-systems dynamics and computational models of how we make choices Discusses clinical implications of process dysfunctions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, eating disorders, drug addiction, and pathological gambling Features chapters from top international researchers in the field and full-color presentation throughout with numerous illustrations to highlight key concepts

Methods For Neural Ensemble Recordings

Author : Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
ISBN : 1420048252
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 70 MB
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Neuroscientists have long recognized the importance of understanding the underlying principles of information processing by large populations of neurons. Methods for Neural Ensemble Recordings explores methods for using electrophysiological techniques for monitoring the concurrent activity of ensembles of single neurons. Since current methods allow one to simultaneously record the extracellular activity of up to 100-150 neurons for days or even weeks, neural ensemble recordings have been used to address long-standing issues in development, learning, memory, sensorimotor integration, sensory information processing, and neuronal plasticity. EXAMINES THE MANY POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS FOR THIS REVOLUTIONARY METHOD Each chapter offers a step-by-step description for the implementation of a particular technique or experimental paradigm employing simultaneous multiple electrode recordings. The techniques described can be used in applications that impact a large group of life scientists, including: drug screening (pharmacology) in both in vitro and in vivo preparations developmental studies and studies of neuronal plasticity chronic monitoring of neuronal function in behavioral studies physiological monitoring of neuronal activity in cell cultures and brain slices physiological monitoring of neuronal activity in neurons trafected with genetic vectors chronic monitoring of physiological changes in populations of neurons during learning of new sensorimotor and cognitive tasks

Molecular Genetic And Statistical Techniques For Behavioral And Neural Research

Author : Robert T. Gerlai
ISBN : 9780128041161
Genre : Medical
File Size : 51. 63 MB
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Molecular-Genetic and Statistical Techniques for Behavioral and Neural Research presents the most exciting molecular and recombinant DNA techniques used in the analysis of brain function and behavior, a critical piece of the puzzle for clinicians, scientists, course instructors and advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Chapters examine neuroinformatics, genetic and neurobehavioral databases and data mining, also providing an analysis of natural genetic variation and principles and applications of forward (mutagenesis) and reverse genetics (gene targeting). In addition, the book discusses gene expression and its role in brain function and behavior, along with ethical issues in the use of animals in genetics testing. Written and edited by leading international experts, this book provides a clear presentation of the frontiers of basic research as well as translationally relevant techniques that are used by neurobehavioral geneticists. Focuses on new techniques, including electrocorticography, functional mapping, stereo EEG, motor evoked potentials, optical coherence tomography, magnetoencephalography, laser evoked potentials, transmagnetic stimulation, and motor evoked potentials Presents the most exciting molecular and recombinant DNA techniques used in the analysis of brain function and behavior Written and edited by leading international experts

Animal Models Of Cognitive Impairment

Author : Edward D. Levin
ISBN : 9781420004335
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 27 MB
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The costs associated with a drug’s clinical trials are so significant that it has become necessary to validate both its safety and efficacy in animal models prior to the continued study of the drug in humans. Featuring contributions from distinguished researchers in the field of cognitive therapy research, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment examines some of the most popular and successful animal archetypes used in the context of drug discovery. It provides integrated coverage of the latest research concerning neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction, assimilating reviews of this research within the context of each chapter. This approach is unique in that it brings together molecular and neurochemical methodologies, behavioral applications in translational models, and clinical applications. The book comprehensively discusses a wide variety of animal models of cognitive impairment, including genetic, lesion, pharmacological, and aging related impairments. It also explores the significance of this research in regards to the treatment of various addictions and disorders such as stroke, autism, Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Edited by two renowned authorities in the field, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment is a timely book that provides integrated coverage of cutting-edge research that concerns neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction.

Methods In Brain Connectivity Inference Through Multivariate Time Series Analysis

Author : Koichi Sameshima
ISBN : 9781439845738
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 50. 55 MB
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Interest in brain connectivity inference has become ubiquitous and is now increasingly adopted in experimental investigations of clinical, behavioral, and experimental neurosciences. Methods in Brain Connectivity Inference through Multivariate Time Series Analysis gathers the contributions of leading international authors who discuss different time series analysis approaches, providing a thorough survey of information on how brain areas effectively interact. Incorporating multidisciplinary work in applied mathematics, statistics, and animal and human experiments at the forefront of the field, the book addresses the use of time series data in brain connectivity interference studies. Contributors present codes and data examples to back up their methodological descriptions, exploring the details of each proposed method as well as an appreciation of their merits and limitations. Supplemental material for the book, including code, data, practical examples, and color figures is supplied in the form of a CD with directories organized by chapter and instruction files that provide additional detail. The field of brain connectivity inference is growing at a fast pace with new data/signal processing proposals emerging so often as to make it difficult to be fully up to date. This consolidated panorama of data-driven methods includes theoretical bases allied to computational tools, offering readers immediate hands-on experience in this dynamic arena.

Functional And Neural Mechanisms Of Interval Timing

Author : Warren H. Meck
ISBN : 0203009576
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 40 MB
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Understanding temporal integration by the brain is expected to be among the premier topics to unite systems, cellular, computational, and cognitive neuroscience over the next decade. The phenomenon has been studied in humans and animals, yet until now, there has been no publication to successfully bring together the latest information gathered from this exciting area of research. For the first time, Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Interval Timing synthesizes the current knowledge of both animal behavior and human cognition as related to both technical and theoretical approaches in the study of duration discrimination. Chapters written by the foremost experts in the field integrate the fields of time quantum and psychophysics, rhythmic performance and synchronization, as well as attentional effort and cognitive strategies through the linkage of time as information in brain and behavior. This cutting-edge scientific work promotes a concerted view of timing and time perception for those on both sides of the behavior-biology divide. With Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Interval Timing neuroscientists, ethologists, and psychologists will gain the necessary background to understand the psychophysics and neurobiology of this crucial behavior.

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