making money coin currency and the coming of capitalism

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Making Money

Author : Christine Desan
ISBN : 9780191025396
Genre : Law
File Size : 82. 62 MB
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Money travels the modern world in disguise. It looks like a convention of human exchange - a commodity like gold or a medium like language. But its history reveals that money is a very different matter. It is an institution engineered by political communities to mark and mobilize resources. As societies change the way they create money, they change the market itself - along with the rules that structure it, the politics and ideas that shape it, and the benefits that flow from it. One particularly dramatic transformation in money's design brought capitalism to England. For centuries, the English government monopolized money's creation. The Crown sold people coin for a fee in exchange for silver and gold. 'Commodity money' was a fragile and difficult medium; the first half of the book considers the kinds of exchange and credit it invited, as well as the politics it engendered. Capitalism arrived when the English reinvented money at the end of the 17th century. When it established the Bank of England, the government shared its monopoly over money creation for the first time with private investors, institutionalizing their self-interest as the pump that would produce the money supply. The second half of the book considers the monetary revolution that brought unprecedented possibilities and problems. The invention of circulating public debt, the breakdown of commodity money, the rise of commercial bank currency, and the coalescence of ideological commitments that came to be identified with the Gold Standard - all contributed to the abundant and unstable medium that is modern money. All flowed as well from a collision between the individual incentives and public claims at the heart of the system. The drama had constitutional dimension: money, as its history reveals, is a mode of governance in a material world. That character undermines claims in economics about money's neutrality. The monetary design innovated in England would later spread, producing the global architecture of modern money.

Before Babylon Beyond Bitcoin

Author : David Birch
ISBN : 9781907994678
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 80. 31 MB
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Technology is changing money: it has been transformed from physical objects to intangible information. With the arrival of smart cards, mobile phones and Bitcoin it has become easier than ever to create new forms of money. Crucially, money is also inextricably connected with our identities. Your card or phone is a security device that can identify you – and link information about you to your money. To see where these developments might be taking us, David Birch looks back over the history of money, spanning thousands of years. He sees in the past, both recent and ancient, evidence for several possible futures. Looking further back to a world before cash and central banks, there were multiple ‘currencies’ operating at the level of communities, and the use of barter for transactions. Perhaps technology will take us back to the future, a future that began back in 1971, when money became a claim backed by reputation rather than by physical commodities of any kind. Since then, money has been bits. The author shows that these phenomena are not only possible in the future, but already upon us. We may well want to make transactions in Tesco points, Air Miles, Manchester United pounds, Microsoft dollars, Islamic e-gold or Cornish e-tin. The use of cash is already in decline, and is certain to vanish from polite society. The newest technologies will take money back to its origins: a substitute for memory, a record of mutual debt obligations within multiple overlapping communities. This time though, money will be smart. It will be money that reflects the values of the communities that produced it. Future money will know where it has been, who has been using it and what they have been using it for.

Capitalism

Author : Jürgen Kocka
ISBN : 9781474271066
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 64 MB
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Capitalism has been a controversial concept. In the second half of the 20th century, many historians have either not used the concept at all, or only in passing. Many regarded the term as too broad, holistic and vague or too value-loaded, ideological and polemic. This volume brings together leading scholars to explore why the term has recently experienced a comeback and assess how useful the term can be in application to social and economic history. The contributors discuss whether and how the history of capitalism enables us to ask new questions, further explore unexhausted sources and discover new connections between previously unrelated phenomena. The chapters address case studies drawn from around the world, giving attention to Europe, Africa and beyond. This is a timely reassessment of a crucial concept, which will be of great interest to scholars and students of economic history.

American Capitalism

Author : Sven Beckert
ISBN : 9780231546065
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 87. 94 MB
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The United States has long epitomized capitalism. From its enterprising shopkeepers, wildcat banks, violent slave plantations, huge industrial working class, and raucous commodities trade to its world-spanning multinationals, its massive factories, and the centripetal power of New York in the world of finance, America has come to symbolize capitalism for two centuries and more. But an understanding of the history of American capitalism is as elusive as it is urgent. What does it mean to make capitalism a subject of historical inquiry? What is its potential across multiple disciplines, alongside different methodologies, and in a range of geographic and chronological settings? And how does a focus on capitalism change our understanding of American history? American Capitalism presents a sampling of cutting-edge research from prominent scholars. These broad-minded and rigorous essays venture new angles on finance, debt, and credit; women’s rights; slavery and political economy; the racialization of capitalism; labor beyond industrial wage workers; and the production of knowledge, including the idea of the economy, among other topics. Together, the essays suggest emerging themes in the field: a fascination with capitalism as it is made by political authority, how it is claimed and contested by participants, how it spreads across the globe, and how it can be reconceptualized without being universalized. A major statement for a wide-open field, this book demonstrates the breadth and scope of the work that the history of capitalism can provoke.

Making Money

Author : Ole Bjerg
ISBN : 9781781682654
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 76. 78 MB
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Analyzes the concept of money philosophically and argues that the current financial turbulence and debt crisis are evidence that the world is living in an age of post-credit capitalism.

Understanding Cultural Geography

Author : Jon Anderson
ISBN : 9781135277499
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 16 MB
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This new and comprehensive book offers a holistic introduction to cultural geography. It integrates the broad range of theories and practices of the discipline by arguing that the essential focus of cultural geography is place. The book builds an accessible and engaging configuration of this important concept through arguing that place should be understood as an ongoing composition of traces. The book presents specific chapters outlining the history of cultural geography, before and beyond representation, as well as the methods and techniques of doing cultural geography. It investigates the places and traces of corporate capitalism, nationalism, ethnicity, youth culture and the place of the body. Throughout these chapters case study examples will be used to illustrate how these places are taken and made by particular cultures, examples include the Freedom Tower in New York City, the Berlin Wall, the Gaza Strip, Banksy graffiti, and anti-capitalist protest movements. The book discusses the role of power in cultural place-making, as well as the ethical dimensions of doing cultural geography. Understanding Cultural Geography: Places and Traces offers a broad-based overview of cultural geography, ideal for students being introduced to the discipline through either undergraduate or postgraduate degree courses. The book outlines how the theoretical ideas, empirical foci and methodological techniques of cultural geography illuminate and make sense of the places we inhabit and contribute to. This is a timely synthesis that aims to incorporate a vast knowledge foundation and by doing so it will also prove invaluable for lecturers and academics alike.

Econned How Unenlightened Self Interest Undermined Democracy And Corrupted Capitalism

Author : Yves Smith
ISBN : 0230105734
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 42 MB
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Why are we in such a financial mess today? There are lots of proximate causes: over-leverage, global imbalances, bad financial technology that lead to widespread underestimation of risk. But these are all symptoms. Until we isolate and tackle fundamental causes, we will fail to extirpate the disease. ECONned is the first book to examine the unquestioned role of economists as policy-makers, and how they helped create an unmitigated economic disaster. Here, Yves Smith looks at how economists in key policy positions put doctrine before hard evidence, ignoring the deteriorating conditions and rising dangers that eventually led them, and us, off the cliff and into financial meltdown. Intelligently written for the layman, Smith takes us on a terrifying investigation of the financial realm over the last twenty-five years of misrepresentations, naive interpretations of economic conditions, rationalizations of bad outcomes, and rejection of clear signs of growing instability. In eConned, author Yves Smith reveals: --why the measures taken by the Obama Administration are mere palliatives and are unlikely to pave the way for a solid recovery --how economists have come to play a profoundly anti-democratic role in policy --how financial models and concepts that were discredited more than thirty years ago are still widely used by banks, regulators, and investors --how management and employees of major financial firms looted them, enriching themselves and leaving the mess to taxpayers --how financial regulation enabled predatory behavior by Wall Street towards investors --how economics has no theory of financial systems, yet economists fearlessly prescribe how to manage them

Foundations Of International Economics

Author : Johan Deprez
ISBN : 9781134757015
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44. 36 MB
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This unique collection presents a Post-Keynesian perspective on international economics and trade. All the major areas in international economics are covered, with the Post-Keynesian approach giving a welcome fresh perspective. The book is divided into five main sections: * foreign trade * open economy * international payments systems * exchange rate determination * development. Unavailable elsewhere, the readings present original, state-of-the-art research by leading Post-Keynesian scholars. Contributors include: Philip Arestis, Robert Blecker, Paul Davidson, Sheila Dow, Bruce Elmslie, Ilene Grabel John McCombie Eleni Paliginis, A.P. Thirlwall L. Randall Wray Johan Deprez, John T. Harvey,

Making Money In Forex

Author : Ryan O'Keefe
ISBN : 0470609044
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70. 11 MB
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A practical guide to trading around the commitments of career and family Making Money in Forex will help aspiring traders successfully enter this field while maintaining a job. With this book, author Ryan O'Keefe explains his own personal journey to becoming a trader and shows you how to follow a similar path. O'Keefe describes his approach to trading and reveals his bargain hunting trading style, which is designed to capitalize on market trends. Throughout the book, O'Keefe pays a great deal of attention to trading psychology, learning to read price instead of indicators, and emphasizes that aspiring traders must find a strategy they are comfortable with and can implement with confidence. Addresses how you can successfully trade around the demands of your job and personal life Reveals the author's "bargain hunting" style which can be used to reduce risk and maximize profit Discusses how common trade management techniques may impact overall performance Provides insights into structuring trading to minimize stress Written in a straightforward and accessible style, Making Money in Forex utilizes a conservative approach to trading that will help you build your trading competency over time.

Monetary Notes

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105117503685
Genre : Currency question
File Size : 43. 56 MB
Format : PDF
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