invertebrate learning and memory handbook of behavioral neuroscience

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Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : M. Heisenberg
ISBN : 9780128071502
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22. 16 MB
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Animals owe much of their fitness to their behavior. They often have a large behavioral repertoire that they have to manage. For this, they need their brain. Using Drosophila as the study case, this chapter depicts animals as autonomous agents and the brain as a behavioral organizer. Behavior is active. It is generated for its consequences. It serves to change or restore the animal’s condition, with no guarantee for improvement. There are two kinds of activity—reactivity and initiating activity. If in a special situation, the animal’s repertoire contains a behavior with sufficiently positive inferred outcome and this is activated, it is called a reaction. Most situations, however, provide no special cues for which reactions would be available. Animals do not have to wait. They can activate behaviors ‘by themselves,’ in search of one with positive outcome.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Piero Amodio
ISBN : 9780128071717
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 33 MB
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Octopus is an invertebrate well-known for the extreme richness of its behavioral repertoire and plasticity. Recent field observations including mimicry, communicative skills, and tool use capabilities have further supported this view. This chapter briefly reviews the most recent knowledge on octopus learning capabilities, focusing on its capability to learn by observation of conspecifics. Social learning is classically conceived as a behavioral trait shown by gregarious and long-lived animals. However, it has recently been considered to occur in solitary vertebrate and invertebrate species. This chapter provides an update on the experimental evidence for observational learning in the octopus and discusses the constraints and peculiarities of social learning and the potential evolutionary meanings of this capability in this cephalopod mollusk.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Randolf Menzel
ISBN : 9780123982605
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 84. 14 MB
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Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Barbara Webb
ISBN : 9780128071564
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38. 72 MB
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A robot that senses and interacts autonomously with the real world can be used to embody specific hypotheses about the mechanisms of learning in invertebrates. Several models of olfactory learning circuits in the mushroom body of flies have been proposed. To use this to control a robot, it is crucial to understand not only when and how changes in synaptic strength occur but also how those synaptic changes fit within a circuit that produces ongoing behavior. Considering this problem from a robotic perspective reveals some conflicting assumptions made in current research that need to be resolved.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Martin Giurfa
ISBN : 9780128071519
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 98 MB
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The behavior of insects transcends elementary forms of adaptive responding to environmental changes. We discuss examples of exploration, instrumental and observational learning, expectation, learning in a social context, and planning of future actions. We show that learning about sensory cues allows insects to transfer flexibly their responses to novel stimuli attaining thereby different levels of complexity, from basic generalization to categorization and concept learning consistent with rule extraction. We argue that updating of existing memories requires multiple forms of memory processing. A key element in these processes is working memory, an active form of memory considered to allow evaluation of actions on the basis of expected outcome. We discuss which of these cognitive faculties can be traced to specific neural processes and how they relate to the overall organization of the insect brain.

Structure And Evolution Of Invertebrate Nervous Systems

Author : Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa
ISBN : 9780191066214
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 44 MB
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The nervous system is particularly fascinating for many biologists because it controls animal characteristics such as movement, behavior, and coordinated thinking. Invertebrate neurobiology has traditionally been studied in specific model organisms, whilst knowledge of the broad diversity of nervous system architecture and its evolution among metazoan animals has received less attention. This is the first major reference work in the field for 50 years, bringing together many leading evolutionary neurobiologists to review the most recent research on the structure of invertebrate nervous systems and provide a comprehensive and authoritative overview for a new generation of researchers. Presented in full colour throughout, Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems synthesizes and illustrates the numerous new findings that have been made possible with light and electron microscopy. These include the recent introduction of new molecular and optical techniques such as immunohistochemical staining of neuron-specific antigens and fluorescence in-situ-hybridization, combined with visualization by confocal laser scanning microscopy. New approaches to analysing the structure of the nervous system are also included such as micro-computational tomography, cryo-soft X-ray tomography, and various 3-D visualization techniques. The book follows a systematic and phylogenetic structure, covering a broad range of taxa, interspersed with chapters focusing on selected topics in nervous system functioning which are presented as research highlights and perspectives. This comprehensive reference work will be an essential companion for graduate students and researchers alike in the fields of metazoan neurobiology, morphology, zoology, phylogeny and evolution.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Hiroyuki Sasakura
ISBN : 9780128071595
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 76 MB
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Thermotaxis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a suitable behavior for the study of neural plasticity. The simple neural circuit for thermotaxis provides the guideline for information processing. Recently developed techniques for optically manipulating neuronal activity and neural imaging have facilitated the dissection of such neural processing. Thermosensory neurons remember sensed temperatures. Part of highly sophisticated and complicated information flow between sensory neurons and interneurons has also been revealed. Recent finding have revealed that evolutionally conserved molecules such as insulin, monoamines, and neuropeptides are required for the plasticity. We propose the functional analogy between the thermotaxis neural circuit and human brain structure, which may help elucidation of the in-depth circuit operation of human brain.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Yuichi Iino
ISBN : 9780128071618
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 52 MB
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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans raised under standard conditions shows chemotaxis to salts such as NaCl. However, after exposure to the salt under starved conditions, these animals learn to avoid salt. This plasticity, here called salt chemotaxis learning, is very robust and therefore has been intensively studied. It was found that the insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway has a pivotal role in salt chemotaxis learning, and the salt-sensing neuron ASER is the target of insulin action. A decrease in synaptic output of the ASER sensory neuron was suggested to underlie changes in sensory processing caused by learning. In addition, other sensory neurons and interneurons are also involved in this form of learning. These findings at the molecular and neuronal levels are discussed in this chapter.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Uli Müller
ISBN : 9780128071793
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 2 MB
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Appetitive associative conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera provides the basis to address the molecular link between training parameters and memory focusing on the induction and maintenance of memory phases. Special techniques developed to monitor and manipulate signaling cascades at high temporal and spatial resolution uncovered the critical role of learning-induced dynamic changes of signaling cascades and their contribution to distinct aspects of memory formation. This analysis demonstrated an important role of cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signaling processes acting in parallel. Both reside in the antennal lobes and are critical for the induction of long-term memory and the maintenance of midterm memory.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Shin Murakami
ISBN : 9780128071601
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 28 MB
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Age-related memory impairment (AMI), also called aging associated memory impairment, is a normal condition observed in a wide variety of species from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. AMI occurs unexpectedly early during the reproductive phase, which may be a tradeoff relevant to evolution. An important but frequently missed concept is that the early phase of AMI is associated with reduced memory of new information but also with well-retained memory of certain old information, leading to a shift of behavioral plasticity. Early AMI affects short-term memory and long-term memory, which are modulated by the serotonin pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the genes involved in memory formation. This chapter describes the current understanding of AMI and clarifies misunderstandings in this emerging field of C. elegans AMI. It discusses the “middle-life crisis” theory that can apply to cognitive aging, including endocrine and epigenetic changes.

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