invertebrate learning and memory handbook of behavioral neuroscience

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Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Piero Amodio
ISBN : 9780128071717
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42. 82 MB
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Octopus is an invertebrate well-known for the extreme richness of its behavioral repertoire and plasticity. Recent field observations including mimicry, communicative skills, and tool use capabilities have further supported this view. This chapter briefly reviews the most recent knowledge on octopus learning capabilities, focusing on its capability to learn by observation of conspecifics. Social learning is classically conceived as a behavioral trait shown by gregarious and long-lived animals. However, it has recently been considered to occur in solitary vertebrate and invertebrate species. This chapter provides an update on the experimental evidence for observational learning in the octopus and discusses the constraints and peculiarities of social learning and the potential evolutionary meanings of this capability in this cephalopod mollusk.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Randolf Menzel
ISBN : 9780123982605
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 72. 3 MB
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Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : M. Heisenberg
ISBN : 9780128071502
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23. 55 MB
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Animals owe much of their fitness to their behavior. They often have a large behavioral repertoire that they have to manage. For this, they need their brain. Using Drosophila as the study case, this chapter depicts animals as autonomous agents and the brain as a behavioral organizer. Behavior is active. It is generated for its consequences. It serves to change or restore the animal’s condition, with no guarantee for improvement. There are two kinds of activity—reactivity and initiating activity. If in a special situation, the animal’s repertoire contains a behavior with sufficiently positive inferred outcome and this is activated, it is called a reaction. Most situations, however, provide no special cues for which reactions would be available. Animals do not have to wait. They can activate behaviors ‘by themselves,’ in search of one with positive outcome.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Martin Giurfa
ISBN : 9780128071519
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 66 MB
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The behavior of insects transcends elementary forms of adaptive responding to environmental changes. We discuss examples of exploration, instrumental and observational learning, expectation, learning in a social context, and planning of future actions. We show that learning about sensory cues allows insects to transfer flexibly their responses to novel stimuli attaining thereby different levels of complexity, from basic generalization to categorization and concept learning consistent with rule extraction. We argue that updating of existing memories requires multiple forms of memory processing. A key element in these processes is working memory, an active form of memory considered to allow evaluation of actions on the basis of expected outcome. We discuss which of these cognitive faculties can be traced to specific neural processes and how they relate to the overall organization of the insect brain.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Ludovic Dickel
ISBN : 9780128071731
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 30 MB
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This chapter summarizes the literature on the anatomical and functional organization of the cuttlefish brain, with a focus on the structures involved in learning and memory processes (namely the vertical lobe system and optic lobes). Also, different learning paradigms that are commonly used in Sepia officinalis are described with, when possible, their neural correlates. Recent work on the early development of brain and memory is also reviewed. Some research directions to follow in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory in cuttlefish are suggested to better understand the extraordinary behavioral plasticity of these sophisticated invertebrates.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Michael Schleyer
ISBN : 9780128071533
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63. 87 MB
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The brain is the organ of behavior organization. It structures the solution to the problem of what to do. This is complicated because usually we cannot be certain which behavior would be relatively the best. These processes, taking place between the moment when an uncertainty between behavioral options is recognized and the actual expression of behavior, we regard as ‘taking a decision.’ Such decision making needs to integrate (1) sensory input, (2) the current status reflecting evolutionary and individual history, (3) the available behavioral options, and (4) their expected outcomes. We focus on the decision to behaviorally express an associative memory trace—or not. After sketching the architecture of the chemobehavioral system in larval Drosophila, we present a working hypothesis of odor–taste associative memory trace formation and then discuss whether outcome expectations contribute to the organization of conditioned behavior. We argue that indeed conditioned olfactory behavior is organized according to its expected outcome, namely toward finding reward or escaping punishment, respectively. Conditioned olfactory behaviors are thus not responsive in nature but, rather, are actions expressed for the sake of the sought-for reward and the attempted relief. In addition to the organization of such outcome expectations, we discuss parametric features (‘axes’) of behavioral tasks that we believe bear upon the decision character of the underlying process and discuss whether these features can be found, or may reasonably be sought for, in larval Drosophila. It is argued that rather than trying to draw a line between behavioral processes that reflect decisions and those that are not, it is more useful to ask how strong the decision character of a given behavioral faculty is?

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Alan Gelperin
ISBN : 9780128071700
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 80 MB
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Terrestrial slugs and snails are particularly favorable subjects for studies of comparative cognition. Chemosensation is their dominant distance sense for locating food, mates, predators, and nest sites. A variety of conditioning phenomena have been demonstrated using odors as conditioned stimuli, including higher order conditioning such as second-order conditioning and blocking. Learning has been evaluated by measuring local reflexes and whole body orientation to odors. Behaviors with learned components involve homeostatic mechanisms for water, temperature, nutrition, and circadian activity. Cellular substrates and neural correlates for plasticity in odor processing have focused on a unique brain region, the procerebral lobe, which is necessary and sufficient for learning about odor stimuli. The rich set of learning phenomena displayed by terrestrial slugs and snails emphasize the importance of seeking evidence for complex cognitive tasks by asking experimental questions appropriate to the Ümwelt of the animal. In general, invertebrates can implement most vertebrate learned logic operations.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Uli Müller
ISBN : 9780128071793
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 41 MB
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Appetitive associative conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera provides the basis to address the molecular link between training parameters and memory focusing on the induction and maintenance of memory phases. Special techniques developed to monitor and manipulate signaling cascades at high temporal and spatial resolution uncovered the critical role of learning-induced dynamic changes of signaling cascades and their contribution to distinct aspects of memory formation. This analysis demonstrated an important role of cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signaling processes acting in parallel. Both reside in the antennal lobes and are critical for the induction of long-term memory and the maintenance of midterm memory.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Shin Murakami
ISBN : 9780128071601
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68. 30 MB
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Age-related memory impairment (AMI), also called aging associated memory impairment, is a normal condition observed in a wide variety of species from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. AMI occurs unexpectedly early during the reproductive phase, which may be a tradeoff relevant to evolution. An important but frequently missed concept is that the early phase of AMI is associated with reduced memory of new information but also with well-retained memory of certain old information, leading to a shift of behavioral plasticity. Early AMI affects short-term memory and long-term memory, which are modulated by the serotonin pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the genes involved in memory formation. This chapter describes the current understanding of AMI and clarifies misunderstandings in this emerging field of C. elegans AMI. It discusses the “middle-life crisis” theory that can apply to cognitive aging, including endocrine and epigenetic changes.

Invertebrate Learning And Memory

Author : Elodie Urlacher
ISBN : 9780128071809
Genre : Medical
File Size : 41. 84 MB
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Aversive learning in young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be suppressed by pheromone released by the queen bee. In addition, studies have shown that pheromone released by guard bees inhibits appetitive learning in bees recruited for colony defense. In this chapter, we examine the chemical signals that mediate these effects and the mechanisms that support pheromone modulation of learning behavior in the bee. We also consider the possible adaptive value of pheromone modulation of learning in the honeybee and its potential contribution to the survival of the colony as a whole.

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