interrogating francoism history and dictatorship in twentieth century spain

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Interrogating Francoism

Author : Helen Graham
ISBN : 9781472576361
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 17 MB
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Helen Graham here brings together leading historians of international renown to examine 20th-century Spain in light of Franco's dictatorship and its legacy. Interrogating Francoism uses a three-part structure to look at the old regime, the civil war and the forging of Francoism; the nature of Franco's dictatorship; and the 'history wars' that have since taken place over his legacy. Social, political, economic and cultural historical approaches are integrated throughout and 'top down' political analysis is incorporated along with 'bottom up' social perspectives. The book places Spain and Francoism in comparative European context and explores the relationship between the historical debates and present-day political and ideological controversies in Spain. In part a tribute to Paul Preston, the foremost historian of contemporary Spain today, Interrogating Francoism includes an interview with Professor Preston and a comprehensive bibliography of his work, as well as extensive further readings in English. It is a crucial volume for all students of 20th-century Spain.

Composing For The State

Author : Esteban Buch
ISBN : 9781317162643
Genre : Music
File Size : 41. 81 MB
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Under the dictatorships of the twentieth century, music never ceased to sound. Even when they did not impose aesthetic standards, these regimes tended to favour certain kinds of art music such as occasional works for commemorations or celebrations, symphonic poems, cantatas and choral settings. In the same way, composers who were more or less ideologically close to the regime wrote pieces of music on their own initiative, which amounted to a support of the political order. This book presents ten studies focusing on music inspired and promoted by regimes such as Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, France under Vichy, the USSR and its satellites, Franco's Spain, Salazar's Portugal, Maoist China, and Latin-American dictatorships. By discussing the musical works themselves, whether they were conceived as ways to provide "music for the people", to personally honour the dictator, or to participate in State commemorations of glorious historical events, the book examines the relationship between the composers and the State. This important volume, therefore, addresses theoretical issues long neglected by both musicologists and historians: What is the relationship between art music and propaganda? How did composers participate in musical life under the control of an authoritarian State? What was specifically political in the works produced in these contexts? How did audiences react to them? Can we speak confidently about "State music"? In this way, Composing for the State: Music in Twentieth Century Dictatorships is an essential contribution to our understanding of musical cultures of the twentieth century, as well as the symbolic policies of dictatorial regimes.

The Faith And The Fury

Author : Maria Thomas
ISBN : 1845195469
Genre : History
File Size : 39. 34 MB
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In Spain, the five-year period following the proclamation of the Republic in April 1931 was marked by physical assaults upon the property and public ritual of the Spanish Catholic Church. These attacks were generally carried out by rural and urban anticlerical workers who were frustrated by the Republic's practical inability to tackle the Church's vast power. On July 17/18, 1936, a right-wing military rebellion divided Spain geographically, provoking the radical fragmentation of power in the territory which remained under Republican authority. The coup marked the beginning of a conflict which developed into a full-scale civil war. Anticlerical protagonists, with the reconfigured structure of political opportunities working in their favor, participated in an unprecedented wave of iconoclasm and violence against the clergy. During the first six months of the conflict, innumerable religious buildings were destroyed and almost 7,000 religious personnel were killed. To date, scholarly interpretations of these violent acts were linked to irrationality, criminality, and primitiveness. However, the reasons for these outbursts are more complex and deep-rooted: Spanish popular anticlericalism was undergoing a radical process of reconfiguration during the first three decades of the 20th century. During a period of rapid social, cultural, and political change, anticlerical acts took on new - explicitly political - meanings, becoming both a catalyst and a symptom of social change. After July 17/18, 1936, anticlerical violence became a constructive force for many of its protagonists: an instrument with which to build a new society. This book explores the motives, mentalities, and collective identities of the groups involved in anticlericalism, during the pre-war Spanish Second Republic and the Spanish Civil War. It will be is essential reading for all those interested in 20th-century Spanish history.

Jung S Wandering Archetype

Author : Carrie B. Dohe
ISBN : 9781317498070
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 37. 86 MB
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Is the Germanic god Wotan (Odin) really an archaic archetype of the Spirit? Was the Third Reich at first a collective individuation process? After Friedrich Nietzsche heralded the "death of God," might the divine have been reborn as a collective form of self-redemption on German soil and in the Germanic soul? In Jung’s Wandering Archetype Carrie Dohe presents a study of Jung’s writings on Germanic psychology from 1912 onwards, exploring the links between his views on religion and race and providing his perspective on the answers to these questions. Dohe demonstrates how Jung’s view of Wotan as an archetype of the collective Germanic psyche was created from a combination of an ancient discourse on the Germanic barbarian and modern theories of primitive religion, and how he further employed völkisch ideology and various colonialist discourses to contrast hypothesized Germanic, Jewish and ‘primitive’ psychologies. He saw Germanic psychology as dangerous yet vital, promising rebirth and rejuvenation, and compared Wotan to the Pentecostal Spirit, suggesting that the Germanic psyche contained the necessary tension to birth a new collective psycho-spiritual attitude. In racializing his religiously-inflected psychological theory, Jung combined religious and scientific discourses in a particularly seductive way, masterfully weaving together the objective language of science with the eternal language of myth. Dohe concludes the book by examining the use of these ideas in modern Germanic religion, in which members claim that religion is a matter of race. This in-depth study of Jung’s views on psychology, race and spirituality will be fascinating reading for all academics and students of Jungian and post-Jungian studies, religious studies and the history of religion.

The Seduction Of Modern Spain

Author : Aurora G. Morcillo
ISBN : 9780838757536
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 31 MB
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This book examines how sexual politics, specifically those surrounding the modernization of a consumer economy, are key to understanding the transformation of Spain from isolated dictatorship to modern state. It focuses on issues concerning modernity and the commodification of the female body under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco in the 1950s and 1960s. These two decades are critical to understanding this transformation because they coincide with the opening of markets, the freer movement of people in and out of the country through tourism and emigration, and the embracing of the "American way of life" popularized in Hollywood movies. From a gender perspective this "in between moment" in Homi Bhabha's terms, from autarchy to consumerism favored the transition from the virginal female model, prescribed by the regime, (what the author calls "True Catholic Womanhood") to a seductive modern woman that the media sold to Spanish women. This study will add a significant piece to the growing corpus of literature on the body as an essential element of analysis in gender history and in the power dynamics of culture. It will help to fill a gap in the field of Spanish Cultural Studies in general and the emerging field of cultural Spanish history in particular. The originality of this study resides in Dr. Morcillo's use of feminist theories of the body to study archival sources of the Francoist years. Of special interest are the collections of Ministry of Culture and Administrative papers Women's Section of Falange at the Archivo General de la Administracion in Alcala de Henares. Also important are the works of intellectuals of the period, as well as health books, maternity and hygiene guides, conduct manuals, and documents produced by the Catholic Church hierarchy with regard to moral behavior and sexual mores that provide a textured analysis of gender relations under the dictatorship. The author's interest in unveiling the regime's technologies of control of ordinary Spaniards is covered through the study of the media, printed press, and the movie industry of this period particularly the so-called New Spanish Cinema inaugurated in the 1960s, illustrating how ads and films shaped and contested the regime's vision of modernity and gender roles. Through the production of dual versions of films the censorship process utilized women's cinematic bodies to present a more liberal image of Spain in the international scene. While nudity was allowed in the international versions the domestic productions continued to cut the customary kiss. The economy of desire displayed in today's Almodovar's films is already present in movies like La Tia Tula by Miguel Picazo (1964). This book will be essential for scholars and students interested in Ibero-American cultural studies, gender, religion, and totalitarian politics.

The Spanish Holocaust Inquisition And Extermination In Twentieth Century Spain

Author : Paul Preston
ISBN : 9780393239669
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 44 MB
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Long neglected by European historians, the unspeakable atrocities of Franco’s Spain are finally brought to tragic light in this definitive work. Evoking such classics as Anne Applebaum’s Gulag and Robert Conquest’s The Great Terror, The Spanish Holocaust sheds light on one of the darkest and most unexamined eras of modern European history. As Spain finally reclaims its historical memory, a full picture can now be drawn of the atrocities of Franco’s Spain—from torture and judicial murders to the abuse of women and children. Paul Preston provides an unforgettable account of the systematic terror carried out by Spain’s fascist government.

Cataclysms

Author : Dan Diner
ISBN : 0299223531
Genre : History
File Size : 26. 91 MB
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Cataclysms is a profoundly original look at the last century. Approaching twentieth-century history from the periphery rather than the centers of decision-making, the virtual narrator sits perched on the legendary stairs of Odessa and watches as events between the Baltic and the Aegean pass in review, unfolding in space and time between 1917 and 1989, while evoking the nineteenth century as an interpretative backdrop. Influenced by continental historical, legal, and social thought, Dan Diner views the totality of world history evolving from an Eastern and Southeastern European angle. A work of great synthesis, Cataclysms chronicles twentieth century history as a “universal civil war” between a succession of conflicting dualisms such as freedom and equality, race and class, capitalism and communism, liberalism and fascism, East and West. Diner’s interpretation rotates around cataclysmic events in the transformation from multinational empires into nation states, accompanied by social revolution and “ethnic cleansing,” situating the Holocaust at the core of the century’s predicament. Unlike other Eurocentric interpretations of the last century, Diner also highlights the emerging pivotal importance of the United States and the impact of decolonization on the process of European integration.

Land Warfare Since 1860

Author : Jeremy Black
ISBN : 9781442276918
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 94 MB
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This book provides a global history of contemporary land warfare. Black argues that although it has always been critical to the outcome of conflicts worldwide, land warfare has become undervalued in comparison to air power in modern military thinking. Ultimately, he contends, there is no substitute for the control provided by boots on the ground.

Translation And The Intersection Of Texts Contexts And Politics

Author : Mohammed Albakry
ISBN : 9783319537481
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 47. 23 MB
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This book analyzes the impact of historical, political and sociocultural contexts on the reading, rewriting and translating of texts. The authors base their arguments on their experiences of translating or researching different text types, taking in fiction, short stories, memoirs, religious texts, scientific treatises, and news reports from a variety of different languages and cultural traditions. In doing so they cover a wide range of contexts and time periods, including Early Modern Europe, post-1848 Switzerland, nineteenth-century Portugal, Egypt in the early twentieth century under British colonial rule, Spain under Franco’s dictatorship, and contemporary Peru and China. They also consider the theoretical and pedagogical implications of their conclusions for translation students and practitioners. This edited collection will be of great interest to scholars working in translation studies, applied linguistics, and on issues of cultural difference.

Hunting Nazis In Franco S Spain

Author : David A. Messenger
ISBN : 9780807155653
Genre : History
File Size : 80. 53 MB
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In the waning days and immediate aftermath of World War II, Nazi diplomats and spies based in Spain decided to stay rather than return to a defeated Germany. The decidedly pro-German dictatorship of General Francisco Franco gave them refuge and welcomed other officials and agents from the Third Reich who had escaped and made their way to Iberia. Amid fears of a revival of the Third Reich, Allied intelligence and diplomatic officers developed a repatriation program across Europe to return these individuals to Germany, where occupation authorities could further investigate them. Yet due to Spain's longstanding ideological alliance with Hitler, German infiltration of the Spanish economy and society was extensive, and the Allies could count on minimal Spanish cooperation in this effort. In Hunting Nazis in Franco's Spain, David Messenger deftly traces the development and execution of the Allied repatriation scheme, providing an analysis of Allied, Spanish, and German expatriate responses. Messenger shows that by April 1946, British and American embassy staff in Madrid had compiled a census of the roughly 10,000 Germans then residing in Spain and had drawn up three lists of 1,677 men and women targeted for repatriation to occupied Germany. While the Spanish government did round up and turn over some Germans to the Allies, many of them were intentionally overlooked in the process. By mid-1947, Franco's regime had forced only 265 people to leave Spain; most Germans managed to evade repatriation by moving from Spain to Argentina or by solidifying their ties to the Franco regime and Span-ish life. By 1948, the program was effectively over. Drawing on records in American, British, and Spanish archives, this first book-length study in English of the repatriation program tells the story of this dramatic chapter in the history of post--World War II Europe.

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