international criminal tribunals justice and politics

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International Criminal Tribunals

Author : Y. Beigbeder
ISBN : 9780230305052
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 68. 68 MB
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The book summarizes the work of international criminal courts focusing on the political challenges faced by them. It is a practical, comprehensive manual on the origin and development of international criminal justice and includes the criminal tribunals of Nuremberg, Tokyo, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, East Timor, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, Lebanon, Iraq.

The International Criminal Court

Author : William Driscoll
ISBN : 0972054146
Genre : Education
File Size : 23. 70 MB
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Annotation The Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II established the principle that individual leaders could be held responsible for "crimes against humanity." Although various ad hoc tribunals were held in the last half of the 20th century, it was not until 2002 that a permanent international court was established, under the auspices, of the United Nations. The international Criminal Court has been controversial with many key nations most notably, the United States refusing to ratify the treaty establishing the court. Some critics object to the adoption of a judicial system that seems to supersede national judicial systems; others fear that the court will be used to pursue narrow political ends. This book will comprise three sections: the first will examine the history of the creation of the court; the second will contain articles that outline objections to the court; the third will contain articles defending and promoting the court. The authors include primary sources on both sides of the controversy, with special attention to America's involvement. A glossary of key terms, and the text of the Rome Statute establishing the court will also be included.

International Criminal Justice And The Politics Of Compliance

Author : Christopher K. Lamont
ISBN : 9781317114253
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 75. 93 MB
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International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice scholarship. Through the use of three models of compliance based on coercion, self-interest and norms, Christopher Lamont explores both the domestic politics of war crimes indictments and efforts by external actors such as the European Union, the United States and the Tribunal itself to induce compliance outcomes. He examines whether compliance outcomes do or do not translate into a changed normative understanding of international criminal justice on the part of target states.

Global Justice

Author : Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu
ISBN : 0275992977
Genre : Law
File Size : 68. 92 MB
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After a controversial war in which he was ousted and captured by United States forces, Saddam Hussein was arraigned before a war crimes tribunal. Slobodan Milosevic died midway through his contentious trial by an international war crimes tribunal at The Hague. Calls for intervention and war crimes trials for the massacres and rapes in Sudan's Darfur region have been loud and clear, and the United States remains fiercely opposed to the permanent International Criminal Court. Are war crimes trials impartial, apolitical forums? Has international justice for war crimes become an entrenched aspect of globalization? In Global Justice, Moghalu examines the phenomenon of war crimes trials from an unusual, political perspective--that of an "anarchical" international society.

Judging War Crimes And Torture

Author : Yves Beigbeder
ISBN : 9789004153295
Genre : Law
File Size : 26. 90 MB
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This volume shows that even democratic countries, like France but not France alone, can commit war crimes, crimes against humanity and even be accomplices in genocides. However, past crimes must be recalled and exposed, particularly if they have been hidden, covered by amnesties, and not judicially punished. They must be visible as part of a country's history in order to ensure that they are not repeated.

Achievements And Shortcomings Of International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda

Author : Karina Oborune
ISBN : 9783640762316
Genre :
File Size : 26. 39 MB
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Research Paper from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitut), course: Friedensforderungsseminar, language: English, abstract: ABSTRACT Aim of paper This paper deals with the effectiveness and achievements of ICTR that can be viewed in light of aims set out in the UN Resolution 955, 1994. In the Resolution UN is determined to: 1) have effective application and enforcement of restrictions against the warfare perpetrators; 2) bring justice and ensure that violations are halted; 3) have fair trials; 4) contribute to criminal justice and process of reconciliation and restoration and maintenance of peace. Hypotheses In the present paper author put forward two hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that creation of ICTR was a logical, but moderate step, which would have not been necessary if global society would have appropriately reacted to previous warnings about possible genocide in Rwanda. The second hypothesis is that ICTR was merely a vehicle of justice, but it is hardly designed as a vehicle for reconciliation. Analytical framework Author has discussed the work of ICTR and refer to particular aims, possibility of their achievement and assess outcomes. Author used three tools of analytical framework: legal, political and economical, as from these different standing points it is possible to assess the work of ICTR in its entirety. Legal aspects of work of ICTR extend from mere procedural points to ICTR's contribution to legal tradition and legal developments. Author depicted which of legal aspects have undermined the authority and image of ICTR, as well as could be deemed as actual shortcomings, and how these aspects influence achievement of justice as the ultimate goal of legal authority. Financial aspect shows the costs of ICTR, but political aspect deals with assessment of set goals in the Resolution and bringing justice as a prerogative, as it is expe

International Criminal Justice In Bello

Author : Philipp Kastner
ISBN : 9789004193123
Genre : Law
File Size : 85. 28 MB
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By analysing the involvement of the International Criminal Court in northern Uganda and Darfur, this book argues that the primary mandate of the ICC seems to have unduly shifted from fighting impunity to influencing politics in the context of ongoing armed conflicts.

Unimaginable Atrocities

Author : William Schabas
ISBN : 9780191612220
Genre : Law
File Size : 49. 84 MB
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As international criminal courts and tribunals have proliferated and international criminal law is increasingly seen as a key tool for bringing the world's worst perpetrators to account, the controversies surrounding the international trials of war criminals have grown. War crimes tribunals have to deal with accusations of victor's justice, bad prosecutorial policy and case management, and of jeopardizing fragile peace in post-conflict situations. In this exceptional book, one of the leading writers in the field of international criminal law explores these controversial issues in a manner that is accessible both to lawyers and to general readers. Professor William Schabas begins by considering the discipline of international criminal law, outlining the differing approaches to the description of international crimes and examining the frequent claims relating to the retroactive application of these crimes. The book then discusses the relationship between genocide and crimes against humanity, studying the fascination with what Schabas calls the 'genocide mystique'. International criminal tribunals have often been stigmatized as an exercise in victor's justice. This book traces how this critique developed and the difficulty it poses to the identification of situations for prosecution by the International Criminal Court. The claim that amnesty for international crimes is prohibited by international law is challenged, with a more nuanced approach to the relationship between justice and peace being proposed. Throughout the book there is a strong historical perspective, with constant reference to the early experiments in international justice at Nuremberg and Tokyo. The work also analyses the growing pains of the International Criminal Court as it enters its second decade.

International Justice In Rwanda And The Balkans

Author : Victor Peskin
ISBN : 9781139468176
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44. 75 MB
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Today's international war crimes tribunals lack police powers, and therefore must prod and persuade defiant states to co-operate in the arrest and prosecution of their own political and military leaders. Victor Peskin's comparative study traces the development of the capacity to build the political authority necessary to exact compliance from states implicated in war crimes and genocide in the cases of the International War Crimes Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Drawing on 300 in-depth interviews with tribunal officials, Balkan and Rwandan politicians, and Western diplomats, Peskin uncovers the politicized, protracted, and largely behind-the-scenes tribunal-state struggle over co-operation.

Justice Beyond The Hague

Author : David A. Kaye
ISBN : 9780876094440
Genre : Law
File Size : 75. 45 MB
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When the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established more than twenty years ago, the international community had little experience prosecuting the perpetrators of genocide, war crimes, and other atrocities. Unfortunately, there has been ample opportunity to build expertise in the intervening decades; ad hoc tribunals have been established to address past crimes in Cambodia and Sierra Leone, and a formal International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was convened in the aftermath of Rwanda's 1994 genocide. Since 2002, the International Criminal Court (ICC) has assumed responsibility for new prosecutions, pursuing war criminals in countries unable or unwilling to bring them to justice domestically. Yet, after more than two decades of experience, the limits of these courts' capabilities are becoming clear. While they have brought some senior leaders to justice, the scope of the courts' budgets and their enquiries can never reach all--or even most--perpetrators of atrocities. They are physically far removed from the scenes of the crimes they are prosecuting, cannot compel evidence or conduct independent investigations, and are vulnerable to changes in funding and international political support. To overcome these and other difficulties, the international community must place greater emphasis on strengthening the national justice systems of the countries where atrocities have occurred. In this Council Special Report, David Kaye examines existing international justice mechanisms, analyzes how they have succeeded and where they have failed, and explains what reforms national legal systems will require to secure just and peaceful outcomes. Cognizant of the myriad individual challenges facing countries experiencing or emerging from violent conflict, Kaye nevertheless identifies a core set of common needs: political pressure on governments reluctant to prosecute perpetrators; assistance in building legal frameworks and training legal officials; support for investigations, including forensic analysis and security sector reform; and creating belief in the justice system among the local population. To these ends, Kaye outlines several recommendations for U.S. policymakers and their governmental and nongovernmental partners worldwide. Beginning in the United States, Kaye argues that Washington should expand diplomatic and financial support for national justice systems and appoint a senior official to oversee initiatives from the State Department, Justice Department, USAID, and other agencies. Abroad, he calls for the secretary of state to organize a donor conference to agree on funding priorities and responsibilities for the international community, and to establish a coordinating body to ensure that support for national-level justice systems is properly coordinated and informed by best practices. Justice Beyond The Hague provides important insights into the strengths and limitations of current international justice mechanisms. It makes a clear case for increasing support to national legal systems and outlines a variety of ways that the U.S. government can improve and coordinate its aid with others. While there will always be a place for international courts in countries that cannot or will not prosecute perpetrators themselves, this Council Special Report successfully argues that domestic systems can and should play a more meaningful role.

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