interaction of immune and cancer cells

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Interaction Of Immune And Cancer Cells

Author : Magdalena Klink
ISBN : 9783709113004
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72. 92 MB
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The tumor environment is a dynamic network that includes cancer cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, cytokines and receptors. The aim of this book is to summarize the role of these components, especially immune cells, in tumor suppression and/or progression and describe in detail why tumor cells can survive and spread in spite of the antitumor response of immune cells. Since immunotherapy is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, this book also provides information on the two main strategies: monoclonal antibodies and adaptive T cell immunotherapy, with a focus on recent human clinical trials. The book provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of immune cells in cancer and is an indispensable resource for scientists and medical doctors working and/or lecturing in the field of cancer research and immunology. ‚Äč

Cancer Immunology And Immunotherapy

Author : Glenn Dranoff
ISBN : 3642141366
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22. 64 MB
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The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Immune Based Cancer Treatment

Author : Michael A. Alexander
ISBN : 9781439861837
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67. 63 MB
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The culmination of 30 years of research and experience in T-cell-based cancer, this book highlights and evaluates new treatments that harness the power of the T cell to attack and kill all cancer cells in our bodies. It describes how the T cell immune system can be manipulated and redirected to kill resistant cancer cells by understanding and influencing the interaction of many different immune cells in the body. Citing current experimental trials, it examines the role and pathology of T-cells and suggests additional experimental approaches to the problem.

Analyzing T Cell Responses

Author : Dirk Nagorsen
ISBN : 9781402036231
Genre : Medical
File Size : 29. 2 MB
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Active specific immunotherapy is a promising but investigational modality in the management of cancer patients. Currently, several different cancer vaccine formulations such as peptides, proteins, antigen-pulsed dendritic cells, whole tumor cells, etc. in combination with various adjuvants and carriers are being evaluated in clinical trials (1-3). To determine the optimal cancer vaccine strategy, a surrogate immunological end-point that correlates with clinical outcome needs to be defined, since it would facilitate the rapid comparison of these various formulations. Traditional immunological assays such as ELISA, proliferation and cytotoxicity assays can detect immune responses in vaccinated patients but are not quantitative. In contrast, novel assays such as enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, intracellular cytokine assay and tetramer assay can quantitate the frequency of antigen-specific T cells. Of these, the ELISPOT assay has the 5 lowest detection limit with 1/10 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and has been determined to be one of the most useful assays to evaluate immune response to cancer vaccines (4). However, the IFN-? ELISPOT assay is not an exclusive measure of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity as non-cytotoxic cells can also secrete IFN-?. Additionally, CTL with lytic activity do not always secrete IFN-? (5). A more relevant approach to assess functional activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes would be to measure the secretion of molecules that are associated with lytic activity. One of the major mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity involves exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules from the effector toward the target cell.

Microarray Technology And Cancer Gene Profiling

Author : Simone Mocellin
ISBN : 9780387399782
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 14 MB
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Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of cancer patients, the principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling must be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. This book, written by leading experts, discusses the technical features characterizing the powerful laboratory tool of microarray technology, and reviews applications in the field of oncology.

Interaction Of Nanomaterials With The Immune System Role In Nanosafety And Nanomedicine

Author : Paola Italiani
ISBN : 9782889453870
Genre :
File Size : 66. 5 MB
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The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Advances In Tumor Immunology And Immunotherapy

Author : Joseph Rosenblatt
ISBN : 9781461488095
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 33 MB
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Recent advances in understanding of fundamental immunology have created new insights into the dynamic interactions between tumors and the immune system. This includes new understanding of T- and B-cell interaction, immune inhibitory mechanisms including the biology of T regulatory cells, myeloid suppressor cells, and dendritic cell subsets. Enhanced understanding of mechanisms underlying T-cell anergy such as arginine deprivation, immunosuppressive cytokines, defective innate and interferon response pathways, and NKG2D downregulation have all provided new insight into suppression of anti-tumor immunity and tumor evasion. In addition to emerging understanding of tumor evasion, new immune targets such as CTLA4 blockade, NK stimulatory receptors, manipulation of the antigen processing and presentation, cytokine and costimulatory responses all provide new possibilities for enhancing anti-tumor immunity even in tumors previously felt to be resistant to immune attack. Several of these strategies have already been realized in the clinic. The volume will explore evolving paradigms in antigen presentation, dendritic cell biology, the innate response and immunosuppressive mechanisms, and emerging strategies for manipulation of the immune system for therapeutic benefit that have realized success in neuroblastoma, leukemia, melanoma, lung cancer, and allogeneic transplantation. Early successes as well as failures will be highlighted to provide a snapshot of the state of clinical immunotherapy with an eye to future possibilities such as combination therapies, adoptive T-cell transfer, and the retargeting of immune cells via T-cell receptor engineering.

Cancer Immunology

Author : Nima Rezaei
ISBN : 9783662440063
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 14 MB
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Cancer Immunology is intended as an up-to-date, clinically relevant review of cancer immunology and immunotherapy. This volume is focused on immunopathology of cancers. The interactions between cancerous cells and various components of the innate and adaptive immune system are fully described. The principal focus, however, is very much on clinical aspects, the aim being to educate clinicians in the clinical implications of the most recent research and new developments in the field. Over the past decade, understanding of the interactions between the immune system and cancerous cells has increased markedly, leading to the development of combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer. This translational, clinically oriented book will be of special value to clinical immunologists, hematologists and oncologists.

A Survey Of Models For Tumor Immune System Dynamics

Author : John Adam
ISBN : 0817639012
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 77. 61 MB
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Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.Research on mathematical modeling and immunology, specifically on modeling tumor dynamics and interactions between tumors and immune system, for biologists and mathematical biologists.

Tumor Ablation

Author : Yona Keisari
ISBN : 9789400746947
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43. 89 MB
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The growing knowledge on tumor-immune response interactions and on the tumor microenvironment did not translate so far into better control of cancer by anti-tumor vaccination. The percentage of patients who benefited from vaccination strategies is still too small to justify their general use. It is the aim of this book to present an alternative to the conventional approach of developing injected tumor vaccines to activate anti-tumor immunity, which will fight cancer. It is argued that in situ tumor ablation (destruction) that involves tumor antigen release; cross presentation and the release of danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can make the tumor its own cellular vaccine. Tumor ablation methods using chemicals, radiation, photodynamic therapy, cryoablation, high-temperature, radiofrequency, high intensity focused ultrasound, and electric-based ablation have been developed for focal tumors. In this book experts will deal with two main topics: I. What are the principles of the various ablation modalities, and II. How each method affects the tumor cells and their microenvironment, and how these effects are responsible for the induction of specific anti-tumor immunity. The aims of this book are thus: 1. Familiarize the readers with various methods of in situ tumor ablation. 2. Review the literature and stimulate comparisons on the efficacy of different ablation methods for the treatment of tumors of different histotypes. 3. Review the literature on the effects of various ablation methods on systemic and local anti tumor immunity and on other manifestations of the interactions of tumors with their microenvironment. 4. Stimulate comparative studies on the immunostimulatory effects of different ablation modalities.

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