in afghanistan two hundred years of british russian and american occupation

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In Afghanistan

Author : David Loyn
ISBN : 023062247X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 79 MB
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Afghanistan has been a strategic prize for foreign empires for more than 200 years. The British, Russians, and Americans have all fought across its beautiful and inhospitable terrain, in conflicts variously ruthless, misguided and bloody. This violent history is the subject of David Loyn's magisterial book. It is a history littered with misunderstandings and broken promises, in which the British, the Russians, and later the Americans, constantly underestimated the ability of the Afghans. In Afghanistan brilliantly brings to life the personalities involved in Afghanistan's relationship with the world, chronicling the misunderstandings and missed opportunities that have so often led to war. With 30 years experience as a foreign correspondent, David Loyn has had a front-row seat during Afghanistan's recent history. In Afghanistan draws on David Loyn's unrivalled knowledge of the Taliban and the forces that prevail in Afghanistan, to provide the definitive analysis of the lessons these conflicts have for the present day.

Hubris Self Interest And America S Failed War In Afghanistan

Author : Thomas P. Cavanna
ISBN : 9781498506205
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 72. 37 MB
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This book describes the conduct of the US-led post-9/11 war in Afghanistan. Adopting a long-term perspective, it argues that even though Washington initially had an opportunity to achieve its security goals and give Afghanistan a chance to enter a new era, it compromised any possibility of success from the very moment it let bin Laden escape to Pakistan in December 2001, and found itself locked in a strategic overreach. Given the bureaucratic and rhetorical momentum triggered by the war on terror in America, the Bush Administration was bound to deploy more resources in Afghanistan sooner or later (despite its focus on Iraq). The need to satisfy unfulfilled counter-terrorism objectives made the US dependent on Afghanistan’s warlords, which compromised the country’s stability and tarnished its new political system. The extension of the US military presence made Washington lose its leverage on the Pakistan army leaders, who, aware of America’s logistical dependency on Islamabad, supported the Afghan insurgents – their historical proxies - more and more openly. The extension of the war also contributed to radicalize segments of the Afghan and Pakistani populations, destabilizing the area further. In the meantime, the need to justify the extension of its military presence influenced the US-led coalition into proclaiming its determination to democratize and reconstruct Afghanistan. While highly opportunistic, the emergence of these policies proved both self-defeating and unsustainable due to an inescapable collision between the US-led coalition’s inherent self-interest, hubris, limited knowledge, limited attention span and limited resources, and, on the other hand, Afghanistan’s inherent complexity. As the critical contradictions at the very heart of the campaign increased with the extension of the latter’s duration, scale, and cost, America’s leaders, entrapped in path-dependence, lost their strategic flexibility. Despite debates on troops/resource allocation and more sophisticated doctrines, they repeated the same structural mistakes over and over again. The strategic overreach became self-sustaining, until its costs became intolerable, leading to a drawdown which has more to do with a pervasive sense of failure than with the accomplishment of any noble purpose or strategic breakthrough.

The Roots And Consequences Of 20th Century Warfare Conflicts That Shaped The Modern World

Author : Spencer C. Tucker
ISBN : 9781610698023
Genre : History
File Size : 21. 23 MB
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This unique reference book introduces readers to the causes and effects of the 20th century's most significant conflicts—and explains how the impact of these conflicts still resonates today. • Supplies introductory essays that provide detailed overviews of each conflict, as well as an in-depth look at the causes and consequences of these critical 20th-century events • Enables students to improve their critical thinking by helping them to identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationships among multiple historical causes and effects • Offers clear, accessible coverage of key 20th-century conflicts, such as the Irish Civil War, the Spanish Civil War, African Independence Wars, the Iran-Iraq War, and others

Afghanistan At War From The 18th Century Durrani Dynasty To The 21st Century

Author : Tom Lansford
ISBN : 9781598847604
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 43 MB
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Covering wars and conflicts of Afghanistan from the modern founding of the country in the 1700s to the contemporary struggle with the Taliban, this single-volume reference analyzes the causes and results of Afghanistan's wars and examines leading political and military figures, weapons, and tactics. • Provides readers with a thorough background on the wars of Afghanistan that allows them to understand the influence of past conflicts on current strife • Enables a more complete appreciation of the ethnic and religious complexities that fuel the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan • Examines how past Afghan conflicts contributed to the rise of terrorism and figures such as Osama bin Laden • Presents an accessible explanation of the "Great Game" for power and influence by imperial Russia and Great Britain in the 1800s and the impact of this contest on Afghanistan

War And Society In Afghanistan

Author : Kaushik Roy
ISBN : 9780199089444
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42. 8 MB
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This monograph analyses the rhythms of war and the geopolitical significance of Afghanistan with a focus on the interrelated concepts of weak/rentier state, great power rivalry, and counter-insurgency. It analyses why the Mughals, the British, the Soviets, and the Americans won the conventional wars in Afghanistan but were defeated in the unconventional ones. It takes a comprehensive view of the history of the region and provides a political and military narrative of conventional and unconventional war in Afghanistan during the last five centuries. It, therefore, covers wide ranging aspects such as empire building and military operations in Afghanistan in the pre-modern period, regular and irregular warfare in Afghanistan during the British era, the Russian intervention and the emergence of the fragile 'rentier state' after the world war, and the American and NATO activities and the nature of on-going war in light of the recent debates on the changing character of war in the twenty-first century. With a special emphasis on ecology, terrain, and logistics, this book explores the trajectory of state building and contextualizes the Afghan 'problem' as part of the wider struggle among the great powers for controlling the 'heart' of Eurasia.

Dead Men Risen

Author : Toby Harnden
ISBN : 9781849168052
Genre : History
File Size : 66. 27 MB
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WINNER OF THE ORWELL PRIZE 2012. This is the gripping story of the men of the Welsh Guards and their bloody battle for survival in Afghanistan in 2009. Underequipped and overstretched, they found themselves in the most intense fighting the British had experienced in a generation. They were led into battle by Lieutenant Colonel Rupert Thorneloe, a passionate believer in the justness of the war who was deeply dismayed by the way it was being resourced and conducted. Thorneloe was killed by an IED during Operation Panther's Claw, the biggest operation mounted by the British in Helmand. Dead Men Risen draws on secret documents written by Thorneloe, which raise questions from beyond the grave that will unnerve politicians and generals alike. The Welsh Guards also lost Major Sean Birchall, commanding officer of IX Company, and Lieutenant Mark Evison, a platoon commander whose candid personal diary was unnervingly prophetic. Not since the Second World War had a single British battalion lost officers at the three key levels of leadership. Harnden transports the reader into the heart of a conflict in which a soldier has to be prepared to kill and die, to ward off paralysing fear and watch comrades perish in agony. Given unprecedented access to the Welsh Guards, Harnden conducted hundreds of interviews in Afghanistan, England and Wales. He weaves the experiences of the guardsmen and the loved ones they left behind into a seamless and unsparing narrative that sits alongside a piercing analysis of the political and military strategy. No other book about modern warfare succeeds on so many levels.

Infantry

Author :
ISBN : MINN:30000010473076
Genre : Infantry
File Size : 53. 32 MB
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Resurgence

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015077899188
Genre : Conservation of natural resources
File Size : 73. 65 MB
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Eine Kurze Geschichte Der Menschheit

Author : Yuval Noah Harari
ISBN : 9783641104986
Genre : History
File Size : 56. 69 MB
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Die Macht Der Geographie

Author : Tim Marshall
ISBN : 9783423428569
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 95 MB
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Wie Geografie Geschichte macht Weltpolitik ist auch Geopolitik. Alle Regierungen, alle Staatschefs unterliegen den Zwängen der Geographie. Berge und Ebenen, Flüsse, Meere, Wüsten setzen ihrem Entscheidungsspielraum Grenzen. Um Geschichte und Politik zu verstehen, muss man selbstverständlich die Menschen, die Ideen, die Einstellungen kennen. Aber wenn man die Geographie nicht mit einbezieht, bekommt man kein vollständiges Bild. Zum Beispiel Russland: Von den Moskauer Großfürsten über Iwan den Schrecklichen, Peter den Großen und Stalin bis hin zu Wladimir Putin sah sich jeder russische Staatschef denselben geostrategischen Problemen ausgesetzt, egal ob im Zarismus, im Kommunismus oder im kapitalistischen Nepotismus. Die meisten Häfen frieren immer noch ein halbes Jahr zu. Nicht gut für die Marine. Die nordeuropäische Tiefebene von der Nordsee bis zum Ural ist immer noch flach. Jeder kann durchmarschieren. Russland, China, die USA, Europa, Afrika, Lateinamerika, der Nahe Osten, Indien und Pakistan, Japan und Korea, die Arktis und Grönland: In zehn Kapiteln zeigt Tim Marshall, wie die Geographie die Weltpolitik beeinflusst und beeinflusst hat.

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