how language began the story of humanity s greatest invention

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How Language Began The Story Of Humanity S Greatest Invention

Author : Daniel L. Everett
ISBN : 9780871404770
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 53 MB
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How Language Began revolutionizes our understanding of the one tool that has allowed us to become the "lords of the planet." Mankind has a distinct advantage over other terrestrial species: we talk to one another. But how did we acquire the most advanced form of communication on Earth? Daniel L. Everett, a “bombshell” linguist and “instant folk hero” (Tom Wolfe, Harper’s), provides in this sweeping history a comprehensive examination of the evolutionary story of language, from the earliest speaking attempts by hominids to the more than seven thousand languages that exist today. Although fossil hunters and linguists have brought us closer to unearthing the true origins of language, Daniel Everett’s discoveries have upended the contemporary linguistic world, reverberating far beyond academic circles. While conducting field research in the Amazonian rainforest, Everett came across an age-old language nestled amongst a tribe of hunter-gatherers. Challenging long-standing principles in the field, Everett now builds on the theory that language was not intrinsic to our species. In order to truly understand its origins, a more interdisciplinary approach is needed—one that accounts as much for our propensity for culture as it does our biological makeup. Language began, Everett theorizes, with Homo Erectus, who catalyzed words through culturally invented symbols. Early humans, as their brains grew larger, incorporated gestures and voice intonations to communicate, all of which built on each other for 60,000 generations. Tracing crucial shifts and developments across the ages, Everett breaks down every component of speech, from harnessing control of more than a hundred respiratory muscles in the larynx and diaphragm, to mastering the use of the tongue. Moving on from biology to execution, Everett explores why elements such as grammar and storytelling are not nearly as critical to language as one might suspect. In the book’s final section, Cultural Evolution of Language, Everett takes the ever-debated “language gap” to task, delving into the chasm that separates “us” from “the animals.” He approaches the subject from various disciplines, including anthropology, neuroscience, and archaeology, to reveal that it was social complexity, as well as cultural, physiological, and neurological superiority, that allowed humans—with our clawless hands, breakable bones, and soft skin—to become the apex predator. How Language Began ultimately explains what we know, what we’d like to know, and what we likely never will know about how humans went from mere communication to language. Based on nearly forty years of fieldwork, Everett debunks long-held theories by some of history’s greatest thinkers, from Plato to Chomsky. The result is an invaluable study of what makes us human.

Anxiety The Inside Story

Author : Niall McLaren
ISBN : 9781615994106
Genre : Medical
File Size : 52. 71 MB
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In Anxiety--The Inside Story, the author takes a critical look at modern psychiatry's twin notions that all mental disorders are biological in nature, but anxiety is hardly worth worrying about. By the simple process of taking a careful, detailed history, Niall McLaren shows that anxiety is far more common and far more destructive than mainstream psychiatry realizes. Detailed case histories chart how anxiety arises as a psychological disorder and how it reinforces itself to the point where it destroys lives. McLaren concludes that anxiety is a major factor in most mental disorders, especially depression and bipolar disorder. This book will change your understanding of mental disorders. Niall (Jock) McLaren writes as he speaks and he pulls no punches. I love this. People should listen to what he has to say about the academic corruption of his specialty, psychiatry. Read this book. The man is unique. And funny, as well. -- Prof. Peter Gotzsche, Director, Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen Debilitating anxieties are frequently misdiagnosed as "depression" by GPs and specialists alike. In this wonderfully accessible account of anxiety, Dr. McLaren demonstrates with great clarity--and very movingly--how a case history approach can help patients confront and overcome their psychological demons. He provides compelling evidence that instead of drugging people, listening to them attentively and analytically has to be the beginning of the healing process. -- Dr. Allan Patience, University of Melbourne Anxiety--The Inside Story offers readers a devastating, blistering critique of psychiatry, together with a provocative exploration of how anxiety, so often dismissed as a "minor" difficulty, should be understood as the root cause of so much suffering—which manifests in a diverse range of behaviors that get wrongly categorized as distinct psychiatric "illnesses." Niall McLaren presents a compelling case that psychiatric care in Australia and beyond needs to be completely rethought. -- Robert Whitaker, author of Mad in America and Psychiatry Under the Influence From Future Psychiatry Press Learn more at www.FuturePsychiatry.com

The Oxford Handbook Of Comparative Law

Author : Mathias Reimann
ISBN : 9780192565518
Genre : Law
File Size : 41. 29 MB
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This fully revised and updated second edition of The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law provides a wide-ranging and diverse critical survey of comparative law at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It summarizes and evaluates a discipline that is time-honoured but not easily understood in all its dimensions. In the current era of globalization, this discipline is more relevant than ever, both on the academic and on the practical level. The Handbook is divided into three main sections. Section I surveys how comparative law has developed and where it stands today in various parts of the world. This includes not only traditional model jurisdictions, such as France, Germany, and the United States, but also other regions like Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Latin America. Section II then discusses the major approaches to comparative law - its methods, goals, and its relationship with other fields, such as legal history, economics, and linguistics. Finally, section III deals with the status of comparative studies in over a dozen subject matter areas, including the major categories of private, economic, public, and criminal law. The Handbook contains forty-eight chapters written by experts from around the world. The aim of each chapter is to provide an accessible, original, and critical account of the current state of comparative law in its respective area which will help to shape the agenda in the years to come. Each chapter also includes a short bibliography referencing the definitive works in the field.

The Unfolding Of Language

Author : Guy Deutscher
ISBN : 9781407070285
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 20. 82 MB
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'Language is mankind's greatest invention - except of course, that it was never invented.' So begins Guy Deutscher's fascinating investigation into the evolution of language. No one believes that the Roman Senate sat down one day to design the complex system that is Latin grammar, and few believe, these days, in the literal truth of the story of the Tower of Babel. But then how did there come to be so many languages, and of such elaborate design? If we started off with rudimentary utterances on the level of 'man throw spear', how did we end up with sophisticated grammars, enormous vocabularies, and intricately nuanced shades of meaning? Drawing on recent, groundbreaking discoveries in modern linguistics, Deutscher exposes the elusive forces of creation at work in human communication. Along the way, we learn why German maidens are neuter while German turnips are female, why we have feet not foots, and how great changes in pronunciation may result from simple laziness...

Communimetrics

Author : John S. Lyons
ISBN : 0387928227
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 56. 61 MB
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Measurement in human services means one thing: how well the effort serves clients. But the data doesn’t exist in a vacuum and must be communicated clearly between provider and client, provider and management, and across systems. During the past decade, innovative communimetric measures have helped more than 50,000 professionals worldwide in health care, justice, and business settings deliver findings that enhance communication on all sides. Now, the theory and methods behind this fast-paced innovation are available in this informative volume. Communimetrics presents information in an accessible style, and its model of measurement as communication bolsters transparency and ease of interpretation without sacrificing validity or reliability. It conveys a deep appreciation for the unique position of service delivery systems at the intersection between science and management (and between quality and quantity), and shows readers how to create measures that can be used immediately to translate findings into practical action. This must-have volume offers readers the tools for understanding—and applying—this cutting-edge innovation by providing: The theoretical base for communimetrics. Practical illustrations comparing communimetrics with traditional methods. Guidelines for designing communimetric measures and evaluating their reliability and validity. Detailed examples of three widely used communimetric measures—the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS), the INTERMED, and the Entrepreneurial League System Assessment as well as detailed explanations for how they are used and why they work. Applications used in a range of settings, including children’s services, adult mental health, services for the aging, and business and organizational development. Communimetrics provides a wealth of real-world uses to a wide professional audience, including program evaluators, quality management professionals, enterprise managers, teachers of field research methods, and professionals involved in measurement and management design. It also makes an exceptionally useful text for program evaluation courses.

God Is Here To Stay

Author : Thomas R. McFaul
ISBN : 9781630871802
Genre : Religion
File Size : 24. 47 MB
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God Is Here to Stay offers new insights into one of humankind's most profound questions: Does God exist? During the past ten years, theists and new atheists have argued to prove or disprove God's existence. Examining the pros and cons of each side leads to one overarching conclusion: The existence of God can be neither proven nor disproven with complete certainty, even though both sides draw on modern science to support their views. Drs. Thomas R. McFaul and Al Brunsting approach the question of God's existence from an entirely fresh perspective. They examine scientific knowledge in several areas ranging across the physical sciences and human experience to explain how the universe operates within very narrow and highly structured boundaries. Most importantly, they create an innovative L-M Confidence Scale to establish confidence levels, not proofs, on how scientific discoveries impact belief in God. McFaul and Brunsting describe the three stages of scientific evolution. In stage 1, the world's religions developed divergent pre-scientific views. Modern science started with stage 2, during which atheists predicted that science would eventually eradicate religion. In stage 3, the authors show how science, evolution, and belief in God have become increasingly integrated and mutually supportive.

The Writing Revolution

Author : Amalia E. Gnanadesikan
ISBN : 9781444359855
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 78. 85 MB
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In a world of rapid technological advancements, it can be easy to forget that writing is the original Information Technology, created to transcend the limitations of human memory and to defy time and space. The Writing Revolution picks apart the development of this communication tool to show how it has conquered the world. Explores how writing has liberated the world, making possible everything from complex bureaucracy, literature, and science, to instruction manuals and love letters Draws on an engaging range of examples, from the first cuneiform clay tablet, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Japanese syllabaries, to the printing press and the text messaging Weaves together ideas from a number of fields, including history, cultural studies and archaeology, as well as linguistics and literature, to create an interdisciplinary volume Traces the origins of each of the world’s major written traditions, along with their applications, adaptations, and cultural influences

Political Archive Of Paul De Man

Author : Martin McQuillan
ISBN : 9780748665648
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 43. 86 MB
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Taking de Man's recently published manuscript Textual Allegories as a point of departure, 13 experts revisit de Man's account of Rousseau and what he calls a 'Theotropic Allegory'. The volume is framed by an introduction by leading de Man scholar, Martin

The Story Of Human Communication

Author : Wilbur Lang Schramm
ISBN : STANFORD:36105040812724
Genre : Reference
File Size : 57. 65 MB
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Word Of Mouth

Author : Geoffrey Finch
ISBN : 9781137328915
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85. 87 MB
Format : PDF
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The study of language has evolved dramatically over the last thirty years. We know more about language use and development than ever before. But many of these new ideas can challenge our notions of identity and our sense of uniqueness. Word of Mouth introduces these ideas and explores the power of words to shape and influence our lives. The book starts with a discussion of the evolution of language and then goes on to examine major areas in the field of language study: communication, media, social function, grammatical structure and psychology. Each chapter begins by considering our everyday encounter with language and then develops a view of the subject which fits with our experience as inhabitants of the 21st century. This fully revised and updated edition contains new material throughout, including more discussion of the possible origins of language, the impact of digital media and the study of politeness. With a fresh, engaging and jargon-free approach to the subject, the book is an enjoyable and intellectually exciting exploration of language. This new edition of Word of Mouth is the ideal introductory guide to language for both general readers and students.

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