host plant selection by phytophagous insects

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Host Plant Selection By Phytophagous Insects

Author : Elizabeth A. Bernays
ISBN : 9780585304557
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 8 MB
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For more than 20 years insect/plant relations have been a focus for studies in ecology and evolution. The importance of insects as crop pests, and the great potential of insects for the biological control of weeds, have provided further impetus for work in this area. All this attention has resulted in books on various aspects of the topic, and reviews and research papers are abundant. So why write another book? It seems to us that, in the midst of all this activity, behavior has been neglected. We do not mean to suggest that there have not been admirable papers on behavior. The fact that we can write this book attests to that. But we feel that, too often, behavior is relegated to a back seat. In comparison to the major ecological and evolutionary questions, it may seem trivial. Yet the whole process of host-plant selection and host-plant specificity amongst insects depends on behavior, and selection for behavioral differences must be a prime factor in the evolution of host-plant specificity. In writing this book, we hope to draw attention to this central role of behavior and, hopefully, encourage a few students to attack some of the very difficult questions that remain unanswered.

Host Plant Selection By Phytophagous Insects

Author : Elizabeth A. Bernays
ISBN : 0412031310
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 32 MB
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For more than 20 years insect/plant relations have been a focus for studies in ecology and evolution. The importance of insects as crop pests, and the great potential of insects for the biological control of weeds, have provided further impetus for work in this area. All this attention has resulted in books on various aspects of the topic, and reviews and research papers are abundant. So why write another book? It seems to us that, in the midst of all this activity, behavior has been neglected. We do not mean to suggest that there have not been admirable papers on behavior. The fact that we can write this book attests to that. But we feel that, too often, behavior is relegated to a back seat. In comparison to the major ecological and evolutionary questions, it may seem trivial. Yet the whole process of host-plant selection and host-plant specificity amongst insects depends on behavior, and selection for behavioral differences must be a prime factor in the evolution of host-plant specificity. In writing this book, we hope to draw attention to this central role of behavior and, hopefully, encourage a few students to attack some of the very difficult questions that remain unanswered.

Principles Of Host Plant Resistance To Insect Pests

Author : Niranjan Panda
ISBN : UOM:39015007461570
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 62 MB
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Introduction; Insect-plant interaction; Host-plant selection in Phytophagous insects; Mechanisms of resistance; Biochemistry of resistance; Factors affecting expression of resistance; Resistance programme; Genetics of resistance; Plant resistance in pest management.

Herbivorous Insects

Author : Sami Ahmad
ISBN : 9780323158244
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 46 MB
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Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms addresses mechanisms of searching behavior leading ultimately to host location of herbivorous insects. It is divided into four sections, wherein the first two sections deal with neurophysiology and the diversity of behavioral induction cues. The third section covers the searching mechanisms as affected by insects' breadth of diet. The last part examines the evolutionary analysis of the behavioral and physiological adaptations in insect/host plant relations. This book starts with an introduction to the chemical sensory system as it relates to host selection in general. This is followed by considerable discussions on host-seeking behavior and allied patterns in behavior. This text also includes the study of oviposition behavior in butterflies belonging to Papilionidae. The third section presents host selection and colonization by three insects within the saprophage-predator continuum, namely, Hylurgopinus rufipes, Scolytus multistriatus, and Pissodes strobi. The behaviors by which certain oligophagous insects locate and select food plants are also considered. The concluding part addresses the unifying theme and the diversity of responses of phytophagous insects to plants. The book provides direction toward developing a unifying theme and improving the ability to unravel the complexities of insect/plant interactions. Behaviorists, ecologists, entomologists, evolutionary biologists, and physiologists will find this book invaluable.

Planthoppers

Author : R. F. Denno
ISBN : 9781461523956
Genre : Science
File Size : 63. 64 MB
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Planthoppers include some of the most devastating pests of major agricultural crops throughout the world. One species, the rice brown planthopper, is among the most economically important pests in Asia. In past decades, government policies encouraged the control of rice planthoppers with synthetic pesticides, a tactic which promoted insecticide resistance and often led to the pesticide-induced resurgence of pest populations. To deter planthopper outbreaks, a more ecologically sound management strategy is being implemented, one based on a thorough investigation of population dynamics, natural enemies, and the genetics of host plant and insecticide adaptation. In the natural habitats of North America and Europe, scientists have also used planthoppers as model organisms to test ecological and evolutionary theory. The consequence of these diverse studies is an extremely scattered literature on planthoppers that has never been synthesized from an ecological perspective. This volume summarizes what is known about planthopper ecology and biological control. It takes a theoretical approach yet is deeply concerned with the application of theory to the practical problems of pest management.

Host Plant Resistance To Insects

Author : Niranjan Panda
ISBN : 0851989632
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 29. 67 MB
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Foreword by George Rothschild Preface 1. Introduction 2. Crop Plant and Insect Diversity 3. Secondary Plant Metabolites for Insect Resistance 4. Insect-Plant Interactions 5. Host Plant Selection 6. Mechanisms of Resistance 7. Factors Affecting Expression of Resistance 8. Screening for Insect Resistance 9. Plant Resistance and Insect Pest Management 10. Genetics of Resistance to Insects 11. Breeding for Resistance to Insects References Index

Chemical Ecology Of Insects

Author : William J. Bell
ISBN : 9781489933683
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 98 MB
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Our objective in compiling a series of chapters on the chemical ecology of insects has been to delineate the major concepts of this discipline. The fine line between presenting a few topics in great detail or many topics in veneer has been carefully drawn, such that the book contains sufficient diversity to cover the field and a few topics in some depth. After the reader has penetrated the crust of what has been learned about chemical ecology of insects, the deficiencies in our understanding of this field should become evident. These deficiencies, to which no chapter topic is immune, indicate the youthful state of chemical ecology and the need for further investigations, especially those with potential for integrating elements that are presently isolated from each other. At the outset of this volume it becomes evident that, although we are beginning to decipher how receptor cells work, virtually nothing is known of how sensory information is coded to become relevant to the insect and to control the behavior of the insect. This problem is exacerbated by the state of our knowledge of how chemicals are distributed in nature, especially in complex habitats. And finally, we have been unable to understand the significance of orientation pathways of insects, in part because of the two previous problems: orientation seems to depend on patterns of distri bution of chemicals, the coding of these patterns by the central nervous system, and the generation of motor output based on the resulting motor commands.

The Host Plant In Relation To Insect Behaviour And Reproduction

Author : T. Jermy
ISBN : 9781461342748
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 43 MB
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Insect Chemical Ecology

Author : Bernard D. Roitberg
ISBN : 0412018713
Genre : Nature
File Size : 61. 39 MB
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Insect Chemical Ecology provides a comprehensive view of how natural selection acts upon interacting organisms and how particular physical and biological properties of chemical compounds act as constraints upon which natural selection may act. Individual chapters raise specific questions as to the nature of these interactions. The first part contains reviews on antagonistic and mutualistic chemical interactions, the `raw materials' of chemical evolution, the economics of offensive and defensive chemicals, and neurobiology. The second part discusses particular problems such as the evolution of resistance, insect pollination, learning, pheromones, sequestration of semiochemicals, the role of microorganisms, sex attractants, the evolution of host races and biotypes, and the role of semiochemicals and the evolution of sociality of insects. The last chapter discusses the role of chemical-based pest management programs in an ecological and evolutionary framework.

Specialization Speciation And Radiation

Author : Kelley Jean Tilmon
ISBN : 0520251326
Genre : Nature
File Size : 82. 52 MB
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"This volume captures the state-of-the-art in the study of insect-plant interactions, and marks the transformation of the field into evolutionary biology. The contributors present integrative reviews of uniformly high quality that will inform and inspire generations of academic and applied biologists. Their presentation together provides an invaluable synthesis of perspectives that is rare in any discipline."--Brian D. Farrell, Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University "Tilmon has assembled a truly wonderful and rich volume, with contributions from the lion's share of fine minds in evolution and ecology of herbivorous insects. The topics comprise a fascinating and deep coverage of what has been discovered in the prolific recent decades of research with insects on plants. Fascinating chapters provide deep analyses of some of the most interesting research on these interactions. From insect plant chemistry, behavior, and host shifting to phylogenetics, co-evolution, life-history evolution, and invasive plant-insect interaction, one is hard pressed to name a substantial topic not included. This volume will launch a hundred graduate seminars and find itself on the shelf of everyone who is anyone working in this rich landscape of disciplines."--Donald R. Strong, Professor of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis "Seldom have so many excellent authors been brought together to write so many good chapters on so many important topics in organismic evolutionary biology. Tom Wood, always unassuming and inspired by living nature, would have been amazed and pleased by this tribute."--Mary Jane West-Eberhard, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

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