homology the hierarchical basis of comparative biology

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Homology

Author : Brian K. Hall
ISBN : 9780080574301
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 72. 28 MB
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The application of homology varies depending on the data being examined. This volume represents a state-of-the-art treatment of the different applications of this unifying concept. Chapters deal with homology on all levels, from molecules to behavior, and are authored by leading contributors to systematics, natural history, and evolutionary, developmental, and comparative biology. This paperback reprint of the original hardbound edition continues to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Sir Richard Owen's seminal paper distinguishing homology from analogy. Commemoration of the 150th anniversary of Sir Richard Owen's seminal paper distinguishing homology from analogy Contributors who are renowned leaders in comparative biology Coverage that is both comprehensive and interdisciplinary

Homology

Author : Novartis Foundation
ISBN : 0471984930
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 65 MB
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'Homology' as a concept became increasingly elusive during the course of the 20th century. The central debates and controversies concern both fundamental definitions and the nature of the criteria by which homology is judged. Attempts to move away from comparative morphology to ideas based on developmental pathways have tended to founder on the fact that developmental pathways evolve and that similar cells or tissues or structures in animals will often have different developmental origins. The use of information about conserved molecules in seemingly conserved developmental processes has also proven controversial. In molecular biology, the use of the term 'homology' has given rise to more debate, although here the issue seems to involve primarily the criteria for assessing whether parts of genes are the same because of shared descent or for other reasons. The contributions to the book explore these topics systematically. There are chapters on the historical development of the concept of homology and its use in population studies. Other chapters deal with issues of homology in morphological and developmental studies, in behavioural studies, and especially in studies at the level of molecular genetics.

The Practices Of Human Genetics

Author : Michael Fortun
ISBN : 9789401147187
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 7 MB
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That concern about human genetics is at the top of many lists of issues requiring intense discussion from scientific, political, social, and ethical points of view is today no surprise. It was in the spirit of attempting to establish the basis for intelligent discussion of the issues involved that a group of us gathered at a meeting of the International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology in the Summer of 1995 at Brandeis University and began an exploration of these questions in earlier versions of the papers presented here. Our aim was to cross disciplines and jump national boundaries, to be catholic in the methods and approaches taken, and to bring before readers interested in the emerging issues of human genetics well-reasoned, informative, and provocative papers. The initial conference and elements of the editorial work which have followed were generously supported by the Stifterverband fUr die Deutsche Wissenschaft. We thank Professor Peter Weingart of Bielefeld University for his assistance in gaining this support. As Editors, we thank the anonymous readers who commented upon and critiqued many of the papers and in tum made each paper a more valuable contribution. We also thank the authors for their understanding and patience. Michael Fortnn Everett Mendelsohn Cambridge, MA September 1998 vii INTRODUCTION In 1986, the annual symposium at the venerable Cold Spring Harbor laboratories was devoted to the "Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.

Homology And Systematics

Author : Robert Scotland
ISBN : 9781482268249
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 4 MB
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Systematists, comparative biologists, taxonomists and evolutionary biologists all concern themselves with the evolutionary relationships between animals and plants. Homology is the principle underlying these disciplines. When looking at groups of organisms, shared positional similarities (homologues) provide the raw data from which hypotheses of common ancestry (homology) may be suggested. In order to explore the relationship between homologues (characters) and particular hypotheses of common ancestry, complex matrices are devised, where homologues are coded, allowing theories of homology to be developed and tested. Practically nothing has been written about this matrix-building process and yet it is of fundamental importance to our understanding of diversity and evolutionary history. This book fills the gap by discussing the different ways observations are coded and the consequences for the resulting hypotheses. It takes a pragmatic approach and uses case studies as well as theoretical examples to offer practical solutions.

Developmental Plasticity And Evolution

Author : Mary Jane West-Eberhard
ISBN : 0198028563
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 19 MB
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The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Annals Of The Carnegie Museum

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105113213172
Genre : Natural history
File Size : 54. 18 MB
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Neues Jahrbuch F R Geologie Und Pal Ontologie

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015059081284
Genre : Geology
File Size : 52. 60 MB
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Co Option Homology And Novelty In The Evolution Of Gene Expression Patterns In The Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris

Author : Alan Christopher Love
ISBN : IND:30000094863143
Genre :
File Size : 25. 73 MB
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Deep Morphology

Author : Tod F. Stuessy
ISBN : UOM:39015058286983
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 81 MB
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Genetics, phylogenesis, ecology.

Adaptation

Author : Michael Robertson Rose
ISBN : 012596420X
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 26 MB
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The study of evolutionary adaptation returns to the center stage of biology with this important volume. This innovative treatise discusses new developments in adaptation, with new methods, and new theoretical foundations, achievements, and prospects for a rich intellectual future. Once again adaptation is established as a fundamental cornerstone of evolution by means of natural selection. This is an insightful reintroduction to the themes that Darwin and his successors regarded as central to any profound understanding of biology. Key Features * Wide-ranging and comprehensive coverage of adaptation * Thoroughly reviews adaptation in an up-to-date and advanced treatment * Includes contributions by leading authorities * Encourages various conflicting viewpoints

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