high pressure phase behaviour of multicomponent fluid mixtures

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High Pressure Phase Behaviour Of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author : R.J. Sadus
ISBN : 9780444596666
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 76 MB
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Supercritical Fluids

Author : E. Kiran
ISBN : 9789401139298
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 31 MB
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Hydrothermal And Supercritical Water Processes

Author : Gerd Brunner
ISBN : 9780444594181
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 80 MB
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Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author : Ulrich K Deiters
ISBN : 9780444563545
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 99 MB
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Supercritical Fluids As Solvents And Reaction Media

Author : Gerd H. Brunner
ISBN : 0080542107
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 11 MB
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Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

Liquids And Liquid Mixtures

Author : J S Rowlinson
ISBN : 9781483140674
Genre : Science
File Size : 34. 17 MB
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Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynamics of and inequalities at the critical point; measurement of thermodynamic functions in the critical region; experimental values of the critical exponents; and scaling of the free energy. The change of thermodynamic functions with composition is the subject of the next two chapters, followed by an analysis of fluid mixtures at high pressures. The final chapter is devoted to the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures, paying particular attention to the thermodynamic properties in terms of the forces between the molecules; the balance of intermolecular potentials between like and unlike molecules; and phase behavior. This monograph will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

High Pressure Technology

Author : Spain
ISBN : 0824765915
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 68 MB
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Pvt And Phase Behaviour Of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

Author : Ali Danesh
ISBN : 0080540058
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 96 MB
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This book on PVT and Phase Behaviour Of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids is volume 47 in the Developments in Petroleum Science series. The chapters in the book are: Phase Behaviour Fundamentals, PVT Tests and Correlations, Phase Equilibria, Equations of State, Phase Behaviour Calculations, Fluid Characterisation, Gas Injection, Interfacial Tension, and Application in Reservoir Simulation.

High Pressure Chemical Engineering

Author : P.R. von Rohr
ISBN : 0080533957
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 87 MB
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This present volume contains the text of all contributions (oral and posters), except for the four invited papers, which were presented at the 3rd International Symposium on High Pressure Chemical Engineering on October 7-9, 1996. The symposium was divided into three major sections, namely - Chemical reaction engineering - Separation processes and phase equilibria - Plant, apparatus, machinery, measurements, control.

Molecular Simulation Of Fluids

Author : Richard J. Sadus
ISBN : 0444510826
Genre : Computers
File Size : 36. 26 MB
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The aim of this book is to examine some of the important aspects of recent progress in the use of molecular simulation for investigating fluids. It encompasses both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic techniques providing details of theory, algorithms and implementation.

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