high pressure liquids and solutions

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High Pressure Liquids And Solutions

Author : Y. Taniguchi
ISBN : 9781483290515
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 13 MB
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Pressure, like temperature, is one of the most important parameters governing the state of matter. Today, high-pressure science and technology is applied to diverse research fields: physics, chemistry, biology, earth and marine sciences, material science and technology, chemical engineering, biotechnology and medicine. Research on liquids and solutions at high pressure is not only important for elucidating the structure of liquids, intermolecular interactions between solutes and solvents and chemical reactions in solutions, but also for providing fundamental numerical data for the design of chemical plants and the development of chemical processes. In particular, high-pressure studies of water and aqueous solutions are closely correlated with research into bioscience and biotechnology. In this volume some of the most important and most recent advances in liquids and solutions at high pressure in Japan are presented.

High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Author : Phyllis Brown
ISBN : 9780323160056
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 72 MB
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High Pressure Liquid Chromatography: Biochemical and Biomedical Applications covers basic information on high pressure liquid chromatography in a simple and concise manner. It describes high pressure liquid chromatography, encompassing the method’s history and advantages. The book explains the instrumentations, experimental methods, peak identification, quantitation, and applications of high pressure liquid chromatography. It also discusses the pitfalls likely to be encountered in utilizing such method. This reference serves as an introductory book for all those who are unfamiliar with high pressure liquid chromatography. This book can also be used as a reference for those who are currently using the technique. It can also aid in promoting the use of high pressure liquid chromatography in all biochemical and biomedical researches.

High Pressure Phase Behaviour Of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author : R.J. Sadus
ISBN : 9780444596666
Genre : Science
File Size : 23. 31 MB
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author : Ulrich K. Deiters
ISBN : 9780444563477
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 82 MB
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Electric Power Research Trends

Author : Michael C. Schmidt
ISBN : 1600219780
Genre : Electric power
File Size : 30. 86 MB
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This work contains research on electric power and its generation, transmission and efficiency, a key subject as the world becomes increasingly electrified and the deregulation of electricity companies in many countries leads to renewed interest in reliable economic design of transmission networks.

Ejectors For Efficient Refrigeration

Author : Giuseppe Grazzini
ISBN : 9783319752440
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 44. 35 MB
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Encompassing both practical applications and recent research developments, this book takes the reader from fundamental physics, through cutting-edge new designs of ejectors for refrigeration. The authors’ unique vision marries successful design, system optimization, and operation experience with insights on the application of cutting-edge Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. This robust treatment leads the way forward in developing improved ejector technologies. The book covers ejectors used for heat powered refrigeration and for expansion work recovery in compression refrigerators, with special emphasis on two-phase flows of “natural” fluids within the ejector, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide. It features worked examples, detailed research results, and analysis tools.

Structure And Dynamics Of Solutions

Author : H. Ohtaki
ISBN : 9781483291420
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 94 MB
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Recent advances in the study of structural and dynamic properties of solutions have provided a molecular picture of solute-solvent interactions. Although the study of thermodynamic as well as electronic properties of solutions have played a role in the development of research on the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions, such macroscopic and microscopic properties are insufficient for a deeper understanding of fast chemical and biological reactions. In order to fill the gap between the two extremes, it is necessary to know how molecules are arranged in solution and how they change their positions in both the short and long range. This book has been designed to meet these criteria. It is possible to develop a sound microscopic picture for reaction dynamics in solution without molecular-level knowledge of how reacting ionic or neutral species are solvated and how rapidly the molecular environment is changing with time. A variety of actual examples is given as to how and when modern molecular approaches can be used to solve specific solution problems. The following tools are discussed: x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, and XANES, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo computer simulations, Raman, infrared, NMR, fluorescence, and photoelectron emission spectroscopic methods, conductance and viscosity measurements, high pressure techniques, and statistical mechanics methods. Static and dynamic properties of ionic solvation, molecular solvation, ion-pair formation, ligand exchange reactions, and typical organic solvents are useful for bridging the gap between classical thermodynamic studies and modern single-molecule studies in the gas phase. The book will be of interest to solution, physical, inorganic, analytical and structural chemists as well as to chemical kineticists.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Author : J. Rouquerol
ISBN : 9781483284538
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 68 MB
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Chemical Thermodynamics–4 presents the application of experimental methods of chemical thermodynamics. This book discusses the three properties of biological molecules, namely, colossal dimension, exclusive orderliness, and capability to be in different states or conformations depending on conditions. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the trends in thermochemistry that involve complex reaction systems and product mixtures. This text then discusses the problems relating to the standard state of solids and illustrates the utilization of enthalpy-of-mixing-data. Other chapters consider the available heat capacity results in the liquid–gas. This book discusses as well the high-temperature measurement of thermodynamic data for substances of metallurgical interest. The final chapter deals with the important advances in the experimental methods of heat-capacity measurements, including laser-flash calorimetry and the high-resolution heat-capacity calorimeter. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, physical chemists, thermochemists, thermophysicists, nuclear engineers, and research workers.

High Pressure Effects In Biophysics And Enzymology

Author : John L. Markley
ISBN : 0195344626
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 85 MB
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High Pressure Effects in Molecular Biophysics and Enzymology is designed to acquaint biochemists, biophysicists, and graduate students with advances in the application of high pressure in connection with spectroscopy as a research tool in the study of biomolecules. The 23 chapters written by leading authorities present an overview of current approaches to the use of high pressure in research on enzyme kinetics, protein folding and structure, lipid bilayer structure and organization, lipid-protein interaction, and DNA structure. This important, timely volume is the first devoted exclusively to high-pressure effects in biochemistry and will be the definitive reference in its subject for the next several years.

Crc Handbook Of Thermodynamic Data Of Polymer Solutions At Elevated Pressures

Author : Christian Wohlfarth
ISBN : 1420037692
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 18 MB
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This handbook provides the only complete collection of high-pressure thermodynamic data pertaining to polymer solutions at elevated pressures to date of all critical data for understanding the physical nature of these mixtures and applicable to a number of industrial and laboratory processes in polymer science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, and biotechnology. In response to the increasing commercial interest due to the physico-chemical properties of these solutions, the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures compiles information on experimental data from hundreds of primary journal articles, dissertations, and other papers into a single source entirely devoted to polymer solutions. The book contains data on vapor-liquid equilibria and gas solubilities, liquid–liquid equilibria, high-pressure fluid phase equilibria for polymer systems in supercritical fluids, enthalpic and volumetric data, and second virial coefficients, all at elevated pressures. An excellent companion to the author’s previous publications, the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Copolymer Solutions and the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions, this handbook contains reliable, easy-to-use entries, references, tables, examples, and appendices that provide students, professors, and researchers with a well-organized, quick route to the data they need. The CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures is a staple resource for all university libraries as well as private laboratories, particularly for researchers, academics, and engineers who handle polymer systems in supercritical fluids, material science applications such as computerized predictive packages, and chemical and biochemical processes, such as synthesis and characterization, fractionation, separation, purification, and finishing of polymers and related materials. _ CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions, Three Volume Set CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Copolymer Solutions

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