hidden costs of energy unpriced consequences of energy production and use

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Hidden Costs Of Energy

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309146401
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 61 MB
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Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects. Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies.

Hidden Costs Of Energy

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1066378163
Genre : Electronic book
File Size : 89. 34 MB
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Exploring Health And Environmental Costs Of Food

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309265805
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 54 MB
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The U.S. food system provides many benefits, not the least of which is a safe, nutritious and consistent food supply. However, the same system also creates significant environmental, public health, and other costs that generally are not recognized and not accounted for in the retail price of food. These include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, air pollution, and their environmental consequences, the transfer of antibiotic resistance from food animals to human, and other human health outcomes, including foodborne illnesses and chronic disease. Some external costs which are also known as externalities are accounted for in ways that do not involve increasing the price of food. But many are not. They are borne involuntarily by society at large. A better understanding of external costs would help decision makers at all stages of the life cycle to expand the benefits of the U.S. food system even further. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a public workshop on April 23-23, 2012, to explore the external costs of food, methodologies for quantifying those costs, and the limitations of the methodologies. The workshop was intended to be an information-gathering activity only. Given the complexity of the issues and the broad areas of expertise involved, workshop presentations and discussions represent only a small portion of the current knowledge and are by no means comprehensive. The focus was on the environmental and health impacts of food, using externalities as a basis for discussion and animal products as a case study. The intention was not to quantify costs or benefits, but rather to lay the groundwork for doing so. A major goal of the workshop was to identify information sources and methodologies required to recognize and estimate the costs and benefits of environmental and public health consequences associated with the U.S. food system. It was anticipated that the workshop would provide the basis for a follow-up consensus study of the subject and that a central task of the consensus study will be to develop a framework for a full-scale accounting of the environmental and public health effects for all food products of the U.S. food system. Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food: Workshop Summary provides the basis for a follow-up planning discussion involving members of the IOM Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and others to develop the scope and areas of expertise needed for a larger-scale, consensus study of the subject.

Law As Change

Author : Paul Babie
ISBN : 9781922064806
Genre : Law
File Size : 77. 59 MB
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In 2011, Professor Adrian J Bradbrook retired from a distinguished scholarly career spanning over forty years. During this time, he made a significant contribution to teaching and scholarship not only in property law — specifically to leasehold tenancies law and easements and restrictive covenants — but also to energy law, especially the emerging and growing field of solar energy. This book brings together those people who worked closely with Bradbrook, each an expert in their own right, to honour a career by critically engaging with the contributions Bradbrook made to property and energy law. Each author has chosen a topic that both fits with their own cutting-edge research and explores the related contributions made by Bradbrook. Most unusually, this collection ranges widely across property law, energy law and human rights.

Green Savings How Policies And Markets Drive Energy Efficiency

Author : Marilyn A. Brown
ISBN : 9781440831218
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39. 66 MB
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This landmark work lauds the benefits of decreased energy consumption, investigating its relationship to public policy and analyzing its potential billion-dollar benefits to the U.S. economy. • Addresses broad questions concerning electricity systems and the economy • Documents innovative, energy-efficiency technologies, practices, and policies • Estimates the achievable cost-effectiveness and economic impact of energy efficiency in the United States • Illustrates a range of promising strategies for expanding green savings • Argues for more market intelligence, monitoring, and evaluation so that energy, economic, and climate goals are met • Showcases the policy environments that have enabled energy efficiency to thrive in leading cities, states, and countries around the world

Toxic Capitalism

Author : Gilbert Van Kerckhove
ISBN : 9781477219072
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68. 98 MB
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The West is causing depletion of natural resources and environmental destruction with the help of questionable companies, financial institutions and governments. Today, all eyes are on China and its hazardous environment. Toxic Capitalism, a succinct volume jam-packed with informative but scary data, shows how to fight overconsumption and wastage. Yes, there is a solution. Only complaining will not guarantee the well-being of future generations. What you will discover and learn in the book: The reality of Global Warming How financial institutions and companies fail in their job How governments fail in their duty, vested interests at work How income inequality affects society The role of corruption How inadequate job markets impede better consumption Details on water pollution & scarcity, focus on China What China is doing to combat pollution, to improve the energy mix and promote renewables How China roams the world to buy up and import the much needed resources, including food How much and why we waste (including food and medicine) Air pollution, soil pollution, impact on health Everyday examples of waste, focus on China How we can enforce quality and durability How we can do our part to safeguard the future for our children

American Energy

Author : Walter A. Rosenbaum
ISBN : 9781483321028
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 49. 26 MB
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There are rapid, and sometimes radical, changes now transforming energy production and consumption in the United States. Utilizing contemporary examples throughout his narrative, Walter A. Rosenbaum captures this transformation in American Energy: The Politics of 21st Century Policy while analyzing how important actors, institutions, and issues impact American energy policymaking. With clear explanations of relevant energy technologies—from controversial fracking to mountain top mining to nuclear waste storage—the book first looks at the policy options available in governing the energy economy and then discusses specific resources (petroleum and natural gas, coal, nuclear power, electricity, renewable energy, conservation) and the global energy challenges associated with climate change. This is a perfect supplement for any environmental politics course.

The Future Of Photovoltaics Manufacturing In The United States

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309224857
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 24 MB
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Technological innovation and growth are critical to U.S. competitiveness in a global economy. One means of facilitating growth and improving competitiveness is to foster more robust innovation ecosystems through the development of public-private partnerships, industry consortia, and other regional and national economic development initiatives. Public-private partnerships, in particular, catalyze the commercialization of state and national investments in research and development. One of the major projects of the National Research Council's Board on Science Technology and Economic Policy (STEP) is to examine state and local investment programs designed to attract and grow knowledge-based industries. STEP analyzes state and regional innovation initiatives to gain a better understanding of the challenges associated with the transition of research into products, the practices associated with successful state and regional programs, and their interaction with federal programs and private initiatives. In April and July 2009, STEP convened two meeting to assess the future of the U.S. photovoltaic industry and the practical steps that the federal government and some state and regional governments are taking to develop the capacity to manufacture photovoltaics competitively. The Future of Photovoltaic Manufacturing in the United States captures the presentations and discussions of these meetings. This report explores the prospects for cooperative R&D efforts, standards, and roadmapping efforts that could accelerate innovation and growth of a U.S. photovoltaics industry. It includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific new technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and energy in order to gain an improved understanding of program goals, challenges, and accomplishments.

Biomethane

Author : Dr. John G. Ingersoll
ISBN : 9781469121918
Genre : Nature
File Size : 34. 59 MB
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The production of biomethane, the renewable version of natural gas, from the biological conversion of organic matter at an industrial scale is fast advancing in several areas of the world. A confluence of factors is fueling the rapid expansion: cost-reducing continuous advances in the technology that make biomethane competitive to fossil natural gas, the emerging concerns over global warming and the need for developing renewable energy resources, and the looming peak oil consequences on the international political-economic stability and in particular the national security of the United States and several major energy importing nations. All types of organic wastes generated by our advanced society, as well as dedicated energy cash crops, can be and are employed separately or combined to produce this renewable fuel. Unlike other biofuels derived from limited food crops, biomethane is a universal natural fuel that is produced in a sustainable fashion because organic fertilizer as a coproduct of the conversion process is used to grow optimally the employed energy crops. Biomethane can be most effectively utilized as a replacement of gasoline and diesel in the transportation sector and is the only practical solution to do so in the foreseeable future. A biomethane-based road transportation system in the United States can generate over 1 trillion dollars in economic output and support 10 million direct and indirect green jobs in manufacturing, engineering, construction, farming, and services. Vision and political will are sufficient to mobilize the vast American natural resources, know-how and economy in order to effect full transition from oil dependency to an indigenous biomethane economy within twenty years.

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Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822041201617
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 61. 12 MB
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