health impact assessment of shale gas extraction

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Health Impact Assessment Of Shale Gas Extraction

Author : Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine
ISBN : 030928791X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 71 MB
Format : PDF
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Natural gas extraction from shale formations, which includes hydraulic fracturing, is increasingly in the news as the use of extraction technologies has expanded, rural communities have been transformed seemingly overnight, public awareness has increased, and regulations have been developed. The governmental public health system, which retains primary responsibility for health, was not an early participant in discussions about shale gas extraction; thus public health is lacking critical information about environmental health impacts of these technologies and is limited in its ability to address concerns raised by regulators at the federal and state levels, communities, and workers employed in the shale gas extraction industry. Health Impact Assessment of Shale Gas Extraction is the summary of a workshop convened in 2012 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine to discuss the human health impact of shale gas extraction through the lens of a health impact assessment. Eminent scientists, physicians, public health experts, and representatives from government agencies at federal and state levels, from nongovernment organizations, from the business sector, and from interest groups representing the interests of the citizens met to exchange ideas and to inform on hydraulic fracturing as a means of extraction of natural gas. This report examines the state of the science regarding shale gas extraction, the direct and indirect environmental health impacts of shale gas extraction, and the use of health impact assessment as a tool that can help decision makers identify the public health consequences of shale gas extraction.

Environmental And Health Issues In Unconventional Oil And Gas Development

Author : Debra A Kaden
ISBN : 9780128041253
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 45 MB
Format : PDF
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Environmental and Health Issues in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development offers a series of authoritative perspectives from varied viewpoints on key issues relevant in the use of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, providing a timely presentation of requisite information on the implications of these technologies for those connected to unconventional oil and shale gas development. Utilizing expertise from a range of contributors in academia, non-governmental organizations, and the oil and gas industry, Environmental and Health Issues in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development is an essential resource for academics and professionals in the oil and gas, environmental, and health and safety industries as well as for policy makers. Offers a multi-disciplinary appreciation of the environmental and health issues related to unconventional oil and shale gas development Serves as a collective resource for academics and professionals in the oil and gas, environmental, health, and safety industries, as well as environmental scientists and policymakers Features a diverse and expert group of chapter authors from academia, non-governmental organizations, governmental agencies, and the oil and gas industry

The Human And Environmental Impact Of Fracking How Fracturing Shale For Gas Affects Us And Our World

Author : Madelon L. Finkel
ISBN : 9781440832604
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 57. 39 MB
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Fracking for gas trapped in shale could be a game changer in the quest to find alternatives to dirty fossil fuels, but it also has potential for harm. This book provides "one-stop shopping" for everyone who wants to know more about the issues. • Offers a comprehensive, impartial understanding of unconventional natural gas development from many different perspectives by experts in the field • Draws from the findings of the most up-to-date research and discusses areas where scientific findings are yet unclear • Addresses fracking's potential effects on humans, animals, and environmental factors including air quality, water quality, and climate change • Explains the economic, legal, regulatory, and ethical issues surrounding fracking • Examines social and community issues and the industry perspective

Shale Gas And The Future Of Energy

Author : John C. Dernbach and James R. May
ISBN : 9781783476152
Genre : BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
File Size : 62. 84 MB
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The rapid growth of shale gas development has led to an intense and polarizing debate about its merit. This book asks and suggests answers to the question that has not yet been systematically analysed: what laws and policies are needed to ensure that shale gas development helps to accelerate the transition to sustainability? In this groundbreaking book, more than a dozen experts in policy and academia assess the role that sustainability plays in decisions concerning shale gas development in the US and elsewhere, offering legal and policy recommendations for developing shale gas in a manner that accelerates the transition to sustainability. Contributors assess good practices from Pennsylvania to around the planet, discussing how these lessons translate to other jurisdictions. Ultimately, the book concludes that major changes in law and policy are needed to develop shale gas sustainably. Policymakers and educators alike will find this book to be a valuable resource, as it tackles the technical, social, economic and legal aspects associated with this sustainability issue. Other strengths are its clear language and middle-ground policy perspective that will make Shale Gas and the Future of Energy accessible to both students and the general public.

Risks And Risk Governance In Shale Gas Development

Author : Paul C. Stern
ISBN : 0309312574
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41. 46 MB
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Natural gas in deep shale formations, which can be developed by hydraulic fracturing and associated technologies (often collectively referred to as "fracking") is dramatically increasing production of natural gas in the United States, where significant gas deposits exist in formations that underlie many states. Major deposits of shale gas exist in many other countries as well. Proponents of shale gas development point to several kinds of benefits, for instance, to local economies and to national "energy independence." Shale gas development has also brought increasing expression of concerns about risks, including to human health, environmental quality, non-energy economic activities in shale regions, and community cohesion. Some of these potential risks are beginning to receive careful evaluation; others are not. Although the risks have not yet been fully characterized or all of them carefully analyzed, governments at all levels are making policy decisions, some of them hard to reverse, about shale gas development and/or how to manage the risks. "Risks and Risk Governance in Shale Gas Development" is the summary of two workshops convened in May and August 2013 by the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Change and Society to consider and assess claims about the levels and types of risk posed by shale gas development and about the adequacy of existing governance procedures. Participants from engineering, natural, and social scientific communities examined the range of risks and of social and decision-making issues in risk characterization and governance related to gas shale development. Central themes included risk governance in the context of (a) risks that emerge as shale gas development expands, and (b) incomplete or declining regulatory capacity in an era of budgetary stringency. This report summarizes the presentations on risk issues raised in the first workshop, the risk management and governance concepts presented at the second workshop, and the discussions at both workshops.

The Real Cost Of Fracking

Author : Michelle Bamberger
ISBN : 9780807081419
Genre : Energy consumption
File Size : 86. 71 MB
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Across the country, fracking -- the extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing -- is being touted as the nation's answer to energy independence and a fix for a flagging economy. Drilling companies assure us that the process is safe, politicians push through drilling legislation without a serious public-health debate, and those who speak out are marginalized, their silence purchased by gas companies and their warnings about the dangers of fracking stifled. The Real Cost of Fracking pulls back the curtain on how this toxic process endangers the environment and harms people, pets, and livestock. Michelle Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Robert Oswald, a pharmacologist, combine their expertise to show how contamination at drilling sites translates into ill health and heartbreak for families and their animals. By giving voice to the people at ground zero of the fracking debate, the authors illustrate the consequences of fracking and issue an urgent warning to all of us: fracking poses a dire threat to the air we breathe, the water we drink, and even our food supply. Bamberger and Oswald reveal the harrowing experiences of small farmers who have lost their animals, their livelihoods, and their peace of mind, and of rural families whose property values have plummeted as their towns have been invaded by drillers. At the same time, these stories give us hope, as people band together to help one another and courageously fight to reclaim their communities. The debate over fracking speaks to a core dilemma of contemporary life: we require energy to live with modern conveniences, but what degree of environmental degradation, health risks, and threats to our food supply are we willing to accept to obtain that energy?

Governing Shale Gas

Author : John Whitton
ISBN : 9781317267560
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27. 71 MB
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Shale energy development is an issue of global importance. The number of reserves globally, and their potential economic return, have increased dramatically in the past decade. Questions abound, however, about the appropriate governance systems to manage the risks of unconventional oil and gas development and the ability for citizens to engage and participate in decisions regarding these systems. Stakeholder participation is essential for the social and political legitimacy of energy extraction and production, what the industry calls a 'social license' to operate. This book attempts to bring together critical themes inherent in the energy governance literature and illustrate them through cases in multiple countries, including the US, the UK, Canada, South Africa, Germany and Poland. These themes include how multiple actors and institutions – industry, governments and regulatory bodies at all scales, communities, opposition movements, and individual landowners – have roles in developing, contesting, monitoring, and enforcing practices and regulations within unconventional oil and gas development. Overall, the book proposes a systemic, participatory, community-led approach required to achieve a form of legitimacy that allows communities to derive social priorities by a process of community visioning. This book will be of great relevance to scholars and policy-makers with an interest in shale gas development, and energy policy and governance.

Health Protection

Author : Samuel Ghebrehewet
ISBN : 9780191062667
Genre : Medical
File Size : 57. 95 MB
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Health Protection: Principles and practice is a practical guide for practitioners working at all levels in public health and health protection, including those with a non-specialist background. It is the first textbook in health protection to address all three domains within the field (communicable disease control; emergency preparedness, resilience and response (EPRR); and environmental public health) in a comprehensive and integrated manner. Written by leading practitioners in the field, the book is rooted in a practice-led, all-hazards approach, which allows for easy real-world application of the topics discussed. The chapters are arranged in six sections, which begin with an in-depth introduction to the principles of health protection and go on to illuminate the three key elements of the field by providing: case studies and scenarios to describe common and important issues in the practice of health protection; health protection tools, which span epidemiology and statistics, infection control, immunisation, disease surveillance, and audit and service improvement; and evidence about new and emerging health protection issues. It includes more than 100 health protection checklists (SIMCARDs), covering infections from anthrax to yellow fever, non-infectious diseases emergencies and environmental hazards. Written from first-hand experience of managing communicable diseases these provide practical, stand-alone quick reference guides for in-practice use. Both the topical content of Health Protection: Principles and practice, and the clearly described health protection principles the book provides, makes it a highly relevant resource for wider public health and health protection professionals in this continually evolving field.

The Human Dimension Of Shale Gas Developments In Lancashire Uk

Author : Anna Szolucha
ISBN : 9788269048315
Genre :
File Size : 85. 10 MB
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A thorough understanding of social and psychological factors as well as public understanding of risk is central to taking informed decisions about shale gas exploration and extraction in Lancashire and the UK. On the basis of existing evidence and the research conducted for this report, it is evident that the failure to consider these aspects of shale gas development significantly understates its actual and potential impacts, which may alter the planning balance in favour of development. From a social point of view, assessing shale gas exploration and extraction as a low-impact activity is unsupported by evidence. A social impact assessment should be fundamental in all political and local decision-making about shale gas development that prioritises public health and social well-being.

Development Of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources In The Appalachian Basin

Author : Anne Linn
ISBN : 0309298814
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 5 MB
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"Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in the Appalachian Basin" is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Research Council to examine the geology and unconventional hydrocarbon resources of the Appalachian Basin; technical methods for producing unconventional hydrocarbons and disposing of wastewater; the potential effects of production on the environment; relevant policies and regulations; and priorities for future scientific and engineering research. Workshop presentations by experts in the fields of geosciences and engineering examined the numerous geoscientific aspects of hydrocarbon development from unconventional resources, including natural gas, oil, and natural gas liquids. Shale gas is the fastest growing source of U.S. natural gas. Most of the oil and gas produced in the United States comes from conventional reservoirs in which hydrocarbons have accumulated in discrete structural or stratigraphic traps below relatively impermeable rock and above a well-defined hydrocarbon-water interface. However, a growing fraction comes from unconventional reservoirs - geographically extensive accumulations of hydrocarbons held in low-permeability rock with diffuse boundaries and no obvious traps or hydrocarbon-water contacts. In the Appalachian Basin, shale gas development is proceeding in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, while New York and Maryland have commissioned studies to assess potential impacts. "Development of Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources in the Appalachian Basin" focuses on the main hydrocarbon-bearing geologic formations in and around the Appalachian Basin, including the Marcellus, Utica, and Devonian shales, and their estimated resources, current production levels, and projected output. This report examines the potential effects on surface water and groundwater quality and quantity; potential effects on landscapes, including soil and living organisms, and other environmental systems; and technical and engineering processes for exploration and production.

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