glutamate and atp at the interface of metabolism and signaling in the brain advances in neurobiology

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Glutamate And Atp At The Interface Of Metabolism And Signaling In The Brain

Author : Vladimir Parpura
ISBN : 9783319088945
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54. 99 MB
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ATP acts as main energy source and is pivotal for numerous signaling cascades both inside the cells (by fuelling various transport systems and donating phosphate groups) and between the cells (by chemical transmission). Similarly glutamate acts as an important molecule for both intercellular signaling though glutamatergic transmission and cell energetics by contributing to ATP production. In this collection of chapters, written by the leading experts in the field of cell metabolism and energetics, intracellular signaling and neurotransmission we covered various aspects of the interfacing between these two fundamental molecules. This book will be particularly useful for researchers, students, physicians and psychotherapists working in the field of neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry.

The Glutamate Gaba Glutamine Cycle

Author : Arne Schousboe
ISBN : 9783319450964
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 84 MB
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Fundamental biochemical studies of basic brain metabolism focusing on the neuroactive amino acids glutamate and GABA combined with the seminal observation that one of the key enzymes, glutamine synthetase is localized in astroglial cells but not in neurons resulted in the formulation of the term “The Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle.” In this cycle glutamate released from neurons is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, amidated by the action of glutamine synthetase to glutamine which can be transferred back to the neurons. The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is like a stealth technology, hiding the glutamate molecule which would be highly toxic to neurons due to its excitotoxic action. This series of reactions require the concerted and precise interaction of a number of enzymes and plasma membrane transporters, and this volume provides in-depth descriptions of these processes. Obviously such a series of complicated reactions may well be prone to malfunction and therefore neurological diseases are likely to be associated with such malfunction of the enzymes and transporters involved in the cycle. These aspects are also discussed in several chapters of the book. A number of leading experts in neuroscience including intermediary metabolism, enzymology and transporter physiology have contributed to this book which provides comprehensive discussions of these different aspects of the functional importance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle coupling homeostasis of glutamatergic, excitatory neurotransmission to basic aspects of brain energy metabolism. This book will be of particular importance for students as well as professionals interested in these fundamental processes involved in brain function and dysfunction.

Glial Neurobiology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
ISBN : 0470513071
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50. 88 MB
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

Glycobiology Of The Nervous System

Author : Robert Yu
ISBN : 9781493911547
Genre : Medical
File Size : 22. 19 MB
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A thorough introduction is provided to the variety and complexity of the roles that glycoconjugates play in the cells of the nervous system. Basic information as well as the latest developments in neural glycobiology are discussed. Topics covered range from the structure and metabolism of the saccharide chains and current approaches used in their study, to changes glycoconjugates undergo during development and aging of the nervous system and the roles they have in neurological disease. The breadth and depth of topics covered make it an essential reference for those new to the field as well more seasoned investigators.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Author : Larry R. Squire
ISBN : 9780123858702
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82. 8 MB
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Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing

The Benefits Of Natural Products For Neurodegenerative Diseases

Author : M. Mohamed Essa
ISBN : 9783319283838
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72. 52 MB
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Focuses on the effects of natural products and their active components on brain function and neurodegenerative disease prevention. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids, isoflavones, saponins etc are known to possess protective activity against many neurological diseases. The molecular mechanisms behind the curative effects rely mainly on the action of phytonutrients on distinct signaling pathways associated with protein folding and neuro-inflammation. The diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in these natural products plays a pivotal role in prevention and cure of various neurodegenerative diseases, disorders, or insults, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, traumatic brain injury, and other neuronal dysfunctions. However, the use of these antioxidants in the management of neurodegenerative conditions has so far been not well understood. This is a comprehensive collection addressing the effects on the brain of natural products and edible items such as reservatrol, curcumin, gingerol, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and marine products.

Neuroanatomy And Pathology Of Sporadic Alzheimer S Disease

Author : Heiko Braak
ISBN : 9783319126791
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80. 91 MB
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As indicated by its title, this monograph deals chiefly with morphologically recognizable deviations from the normal anatomical condition of the human CNS. The AD-associated pathology is illustrated from its beginnings (sometimes even in childhood) to its final form, which is reached late in life. The AD process commences much earlier than the clinically recognizable phase of the disorder, and its timeline includes an extended preclinical phase. The further the pendulum swings away from the symptomatic final stages towards the early pathology, the more obvious the lesions become, although from a standpoint of severity they are more unremarkable and thus frequently overlooked during routine neuropathological assessment. For this reason, the authors deal with the hallmark lesions in the early phases of the AD process in considerable detail

Glial Neuronal Signaling

Author : Glenn I. Hatton
ISBN : 9781402079375
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 43 MB
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Glial Neuronal Signaling fills a need for a monograph/textbook to be used in advanced courses or graduate seminars aimed at exploring glial-neuronal interactions. Even experts in the field will find useful the authoritative summaries of evidence on ion channels and transporters in glia, genes involved in signaling during development, metabolic cross talk and cooperation between astrocytes and neurons, to mention but a few of the timely summaries of a wide range of glial-neuronal interactions. The chapters are written by the top researchers in the field of glial-neuronal signaling, and cover the most current advances in this field. The book will also be of value to the workers in the field of cell biology in general. When we think about the brain we usually think about neurons. Although there are 100 billion neurons in mammalian brain, these cells do not constitute a majority. Quite the contrary, glial cells and other non-neuronal cells are 10-50 times more numerous than neurons. This book is meant to integrate the emerging body of information that has been accumulating, revealing the interactive nature of the brain's two major neural cell types, neurons and glia, in brain function.

Advances In The Neuroscience Of Addiction

Author : Cynthia M. Kuhn
ISBN : 9781420007350
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 75 MB
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Understanding the phenomenon of long-lasting vulnerability to addiction is essential to developing successful treatments. Written by an international team of authorities in their respective fields, Advances in the Neuroscience of Addiction provides an excellent overview of the available and emerging approaches used to investigate the biologic mechanisms of drug addiction. It also delineates the promising research discoveries being made in relapse prevention. The book begins with current animal models of addiction, which mimic the state of humans entering treatment: recently-abstinent animals that receive common triggers for relapse (classical conditioning, stress, and neuroadaptive dysregulation). Coverage then shifts to the use of electrophysiologic approaches, which enable researchers to characterize the discharge patterns of single neurons during drug self-administration. After exploring advances in voltammetry and enzyme-linked biosensors for measuring glutamate, the book discusses the theoretical background and results of neuroimaging studies related to neuronal networks that are activated by drug-specific cues. It then describes modern genetic approaches to manipulate target proteins that influence addictive behavior. The book rounds out its coverage by illustrating how a neuroeconomic approach can inform studies of reward processing in general and addiction in particular. It is a comprehensive introduction to the methodologies of the field for students and beginning researchers and an essential reference source for established investigators.

Handbook Of Neuroendocrinology

Author : George Fink
ISBN : 9780123750976
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 40 MB
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Neuroendocrinology underpins fundamental physiological, molecular, biological, and genetic principles such as the regulation of gene transcription and translation. This handbook highlights the experimental and technical foundations of each area's major concepts and principles.

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