geology of high level nuclear waste disposal an introduction

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Geology Of High Level Nuclear Waste Disposal

Author : I.S. Roxburgh
ISBN : 9789400926097
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 71 MB
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Geological Repository Systems For Safe Disposal Of Spent Nuclear Fuels And Radioactive Waste

Author : Michael J Apted
ISBN : 9780081006528
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 23. 1 MB
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Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste, Second Edition, critically reviews state-of-the-art technologies and scientific methods relating to the implementation of the most effective approaches to the long-term, safe disposition of nuclear waste, also discussing regulatory developments and social engagement approaches as major themes. Chapters in Part One introduce the topic of geological disposal, providing an overview of near-surface, intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal, spanning low-, medium- and high-level wastes. Part Two addresses the different types of repository systems – crystalline, clay, and salt, also discussing methods of site surveying and construction. The critical safety issue of engineered barrier systems is the focus of Part Three, with coverage ranging from nuclear waste canisters, to buffer and backfill materials. Lastly, Parts Four and Five focus on safety, security, and acceptability, concentrating on repository performance assessment, then radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and social engagement. Comprehensively revised, updated, and expanded with 25% new material on topics of current importance, this is the standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Contains 25% more material on topics of current importance in this new, comprehensive edition Fully updated coverage of both near-surface/intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal in one convenient volume Goes beyond the scientific and technical aspects of disposal to include the political, regulatory, and societal issues involved, all from an international perspective

Radioactive Waste Disposal And Geology

Author : Konrad Krauskopf
ISBN : 9789400912014
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 90 MB
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The perception of radioactive waste as a major problem for the industrial world has developed only recently. Four decades ago the disposal of such waste was regarded as a relatively minor matter. Those were the heady days when nuclear fission seemed the answer to the world's energy needs: the two wartime bombs had demonstrated its awesome power, and now it was to be harnessed for the production of electricity, the excavation of canals, even the running of cars and airplanes. In all applications of fission some waste containing radioactive elements would be generated of course, but it seemed only a trivial annoyance, a problem whose solution could be deferred until the more exciting challenges of constructing reactors and devising more efficient weapons had been mastered. So waste accumulated, some in tanks and some buried in shallow trenches. These were recognized as only temporary, makeshift measures, because it was known that the debris would be hazardous to its surroundings for many thousands of years and hence that more permanent disposal would someday be needed. The difficulty of accomplishing this more lasting disposal only gradually became apparent. The difficulty has been compounded by uncertainty about the physiological effects oflow-Ievel radiation, by the inadequacy of detailed knowledge about the behavior of engineered and geologic materials over long periods under unusual conditions, and by the sensitization of popular fears about radiation in all its forms following widely publicized reactor accidents and leaks from waste storage sites.

An Introduction To Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

Author : Michael I Ojovan
ISBN : 9780080993935
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81. 15 MB
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Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience in the processing and disposal of waste, An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Second Edition examines the gamut of nuclear waste issues from the natural level of radionuclides in the environment to geological disposal of waste-forms and their long-term behavior. It covers all-important aspects of processing and immobilization, including nuclear decay, regulations, new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used, especially cement and glass, with further discussion of other matrices such as bitumen. The final chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of immobilizing materials and safety of disposal, providing a full range of the resources needed to understand and correctly immobilize nuclear waste. The fully revised second edition focuses on core technologies and has an integrated approach to immobilization and hazards Each chapter focuses on a different matrix used in nuclear waste immobilization: cement, bitumen, glass and new materials Keeps the most important issues surrounding nuclear waste - such as treatment schemes and technologies and disposal - at the forefront

Geological Disposal Of Radioactive Wastes And Natural Analogues

Author : W. Miller
ISBN : 0080553052
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 90. 26 MB
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Many countries are currently exploring the option to dispose of highly radioactive solid wastes deep underground in purpose built, engineered repositories. A number of surface and shallow repositories for less radioactive wastes are already in operation. One of the challenges facing the nuclear industry is to demonstrate confidently that a repository will contain wastes for so long that any releases that might take place in the future will pose no significant health or environmental risk. One method for building confidence in the long-term future safety of a repository is to look at the physical and chemical processes which operate in natural and archaeological systems, and to draw appropriate parallels with the repository. For example, to understand why some uranium orebodies have remained isolated underground for billions of years. Such studies are called 'natural analogues'. This book investigates the concept of geological disposal and examines the wide range of natural analogues which have been studied. Lessons learnt from studies of archaeological and natural systems can be used to improve our capabilities for assessing the future safety of a radioactive waste repository.

Clays In Natural And Engineered Barriers For Radioactive Waste Confinement

Author : S. Norris
ISBN : 9781862396548
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 69 MB
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This Special Publication contains 43 scientific studies presented at the 5th conference on ‘Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement’ held in Montpellier, France in 2012. The conference and this resulting volume cover all the aspects of clay characterization and behaviour considered at various temporal and spatial scales relevant to the confinement of radionuclides in clay, from basic phenomenological process descriptions to the global understanding of performance and safety at repository and geological scales. Special emphasis has been given to the modelling of processes occurring at the mineralogical level within the clay barriers. The papers in this Special Publication consider research into argillaceous media under the following topic areas: large-scale geological characterization; clay-based concept/large-scale experiments; hydrodynamical modelling; geochemistry; geomechanics; mass transfer/gas transfer; mass transfer mechanisms. The collection of different topics presented in this Special Publication demonstrates the diversity of geological repository research.

Natural Analogue Studies In The Geological Disposal Of Radioactive Wastes

Author : W.M. Miller
ISBN : 0080875165
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 4 MB
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The first purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the state of development of natural analogue studies with emphasis on those studies which are relevant to the following repository designs: Nagra (Switzerland) disposal concepts for high-level waste/low and intermediate-level waste; SKB (Sweden) disposal concepts for spent fuel/low and intermediate-level waste; and Nirex (UK) disposal concept for low and intermediate-level waste. The book's second aim is to discuss the expanding application of natural analogues for non-performance assessment purposes, especially their potential for presenting the concept of geological disposal to various interested audiences in a coherent, understandable and scientifically legitimate manner. Much of the discussion of the book is relevant to concepts for geological disposal of radioactive wastes by other countries, and is concerned only with those physico-chemical processes which control the release of radionuclides from the near-field, and their subsequent retardation and transport in the geosphere.

Radioactive Waste Management And Contaminated Site Clean Up

Author : William E Lee
ISBN : 9780857097446
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46. 34 MB
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Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR. Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry. Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Disposition Of High Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation

Author : Board on Radioactive Waste Management
ISBN : 9780309067782
Genre : Nature
File Size : 35. 3 MB
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During the next several years, decisions are expected to be made in several countries on the further development and implementation of the geological disposition option. The Board on Radioactive Waste Management (BRWM) of the U.S. National Academies believes that informed and reasoned discussion of relevant scientific, engineering and social issues can-and should-play a constructive role in the decision process by providing information to decision makers on relevant technical and policy issues. A BRWM-initiated project including a workshop at Irvine, California on November 4-5, 1999, and subsequent National Academies' report to be published in spring, 2000, are intended to provide such information to national policy makers both in the U.S. and abroad. To inform national policies, it is essential that experts from the physical, geological, and engineering sciences, and experts from the policy and social science communities work together. Some national programs have involved social science and policy experts from the beginning, while other programs have only recently recognized the importance of this collaboration. An important goal of the November workshop is to facilitate dialogue between these communities, as well as to encourage the sharing of experiences from many national programs. The workshop steering committee has prepared this discussion for participants at the workshop. It should elicit critical comments and help identify topics requiring in-depth discussion at the workshop. It is not intended as a statement of findings, conclusions, or recommendations. It is rather intended as a vehicle for stimulating dialogue among the workshop participants. Out of that dialogue will emerge the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the National Academies' report.

Liberating Energy From Carbon Introduction To Decarbonization

Author : Nazim Muradov
ISBN : 9781493905454
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 87 MB
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Liberating Energy from Carbon analyzes energy options in a carbon-constrained world. Major strategies and pathways to decarbonizing the carbon-intensive economy are laid out with a special emphasis on the prospects of achieving low-risk atmospheric CO2 levels. The opportunities and challenges in developing and bringing to market novel low and zero-carbon technologies are highlighted from technical, economic and environmental viewpoints. This book takes a unique approach by treating carbon in a holistic manner—tracking its complete transformation chain from fossil fuel sources to the unique properties of the CO2 molecule, to carbon capture and storage and finally, to CO2 industrial utilization and its conversion to value-added products and fuels. This concise but comprehensive sourcebook guides readers through recent scientific and technological developments as well as commercial projects that aim for the decarbonization of the fossil fuel-based economy and CO2 utilization that will play an increasingly important role in the near- and mid-term future. This book is intended for researchers, engineers, and students working and studying in practically all areas of energy technology and alternative energy sources and fuels.

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