fundamentals of energy dispersive x ray analysis butterworths monographs in materials

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Fundamentals Of Energy Dispersive X Ray Analysis

Author : John C. Russ
ISBN : 9781483164007
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 35 MB
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Fundamentals of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of dispersive X-ray analysis. It presents descriptions, equations, and graphs to enable the users of these techniques to develop an intuitive and conceptual image of the physical processes involved in the generation and detection of X-rays. The book begins with a discussion of X-ray detection and measurement, which is accomplished by one of two types of X-ray spectrometer: energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive. The emphasis is on energy dispersive spectrometers, given their rather widespread use compared to the wavelength dispersive type. This is followed by separate chapters on techniques such as X-ray absorption; spectrum processing; and elimination of spectrum background produced by electron excitation. Subsequent chapters cover X-ray fluorescence; the use of regression models; hardware for X-ray fluorescence analysis; scattering, background, and trace element analysis; and methods for producing inner shell excitation of atoms in a sample of interest. The final chapter deals with applications of X-ray analysis.

Asbestos Exposure In India

Author : Maya Yadav
ISBN : 9783954894888
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33. 61 MB
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The International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) classifies asbestos as a proven human carcinogen. No amount of asbestos exposure is safe for human health. Consequently, the use of all forms of asbestos has been banned in most of the developed countries. Unfortunately, India has failed to impose such a ban. Despite the fact that a ban on mining in India is being placed for more than 20 years, mines in the private sector of India are still in operation and asbestos continues to be used in large quantities. The official reason given by both industry and government is that it is a material for the poor as it is cheap and has many good properties. Generally, people in the slum area often cook their food in the open wood fire under asbestos roofing. This results in cracking of asbestos cement roofs exposing asbestos, making it friable as the height of most rural houses roofed with asbestos cement is too small to have effective air circulation. In addition, on the roofs of Indian slums, where it is sawn and fixed by hand, it’s difficult to avoid releasing a large number of dangerous fibers. The inhabitants paint their asbestos roofing with emulsion paint which also deteriorates it, rapidly resulting in discoloration and mould growth. As a result, Asbestos related diseases are more common in the slum area. In this study, Asbestos cement sample was randomly scanned at various magnifications to identify asbestos fibers and determine how asbestos fibers are mixed with construction materials. Laboratory analyses were performed on the asbestos cement sample to establish a relationship between: i) morphology (shape of the crystals), ii) the asbestos cement mineralogical composition using SEM analyses and iii) high magnification structure of the individual fibers (fibrils), as well as iv) energy dispersive x-ray analysis of the fiber chemistry by comparison to a standard. Also, quantification analysis of fiber length and thickness was performed due to the reason that fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are both dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. There are several standards specified under the Factories Act and Mines Act including limits of exposure. But standards in India are only on paper. All forms of asbestos pose grave to human health. All are proven human carcinogens. There is no continued justification for the use of asbestos. Its production and use should be banned worldwide. A global ban on asbestos is needed.

The Microscope

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015012615715
Genre : Crystals
File Size : 28. 8 MB
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Vol. 3 adds section "The Entomological monthly."

Iawa Journal

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P01094132G
Genre : Wood
File Size : 56. 1 MB
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Encyclopedia Of Materials Characterization

Author : C. R. Brundle
ISBN : 0750691689
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 6 MB
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Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization is a comprehensive volume on analytical techniques used in materials science for the characterization of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. This flagship volume in the Materials Characterization Series is a unique, stand-alone reference for materials science practitioners, process engineers, students and anyone with a need to know about the capabilities available in materials analysis. An encyclopedia of 50 concise articles, this book will also be a practical companion to the forthcoming books in the Series. It describes widely-ranging techniques in a jargon-free manner and includes summary pages for each technique to supply a quick survey of its capabilities.

Metal Failures

Author : Arthur J. McEvily
ISBN : 9781118421161
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 83. 14 MB
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One of the only texts available to cover not only how failure occurs but also examine methods developed to expose the reasons for failure, Metal Failures has long been considered the most definitive and authoritative resources in metallurgical failure analysis. Now in a completely revised edition, this Second Edition features updates of all chapters plus new coverage of elastic behavior and plastic deformation, localized necking, the phenomenological aspects of fatigue, fatigue crack propagation, alloys and coatings, tensors and tensor notations, and much more.

Uniting Electron Crystallography And Powder Diffraction

Author : Ute Kolb
ISBN : 9789400755802
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 38 MB
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The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination. This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of disciplines and materials stretching from archeometry to zeolites. As such, it is a comprehensive and valuable resource for those wishing to gain an understanding of the broad applicability of these two rapidly developing fields.

The Metallurgist And Materials Technologist

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ISBN : UOM:39015029630947
Genre : Metallurgy
File Size : 62. 76 MB
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Introduction To Surface And Thin Film Processes

Author : John Venables
ISBN : 0521785006
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 66 MB
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Graduate textbook and sourcebook on surface and thin film processes, with links to the World Wide Web.

Scanning Electron Microscopy And X Ray Microanalysis

Author : Joseph I. Goldstein
ISBN : 9781493966769
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86. 46 MB
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This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners — engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers — will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope’s software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules – no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes an online supplement—an extensive "Database of Electron–Solid Interactions"—which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3

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