fundamentals of energy dispersive x ray analysis butterworths monographs in materials

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Fundamentals Of Energy Dispersive X Ray Analysis

Author : John C. Russ
ISBN : 9781483164007
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 38 MB
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Fundamentals of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of dispersive X-ray analysis. It presents descriptions, equations, and graphs to enable the users of these techniques to develop an intuitive and conceptual image of the physical processes involved in the generation and detection of X-rays. The book begins with a discussion of X-ray detection and measurement, which is accomplished by one of two types of X-ray spectrometer: energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive. The emphasis is on energy dispersive spectrometers, given their rather widespread use compared to the wavelength dispersive type. This is followed by separate chapters on techniques such as X-ray absorption; spectrum processing; and elimination of spectrum background produced by electron excitation. Subsequent chapters cover X-ray fluorescence; the use of regression models; hardware for X-ray fluorescence analysis; scattering, background, and trace element analysis; and methods for producing inner shell excitation of atoms in a sample of interest. The final chapter deals with applications of X-ray analysis.

Asbestos Exposure In India

Author : Maya Yadav
ISBN : 9783954894888
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 87 MB
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The International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) classifies asbestos as a proven human carcinogen. No amount of asbestos exposure is safe for human health. Consequently, the use of all forms of asbestos has been banned in most of the developed countries. Unfortunately, India has failed to impose such a ban. Despite the fact that a ban on mining in India is being placed for more than 20 years, mines in the private sector of India are still in operation and asbestos continues to be used in large quantities. The official reason given by both industry and government is that it is a material for the poor as it is cheap and has many good properties. Generally, people in the slum area often cook their food in the open wood fire under asbestos roofing. This results in cracking of asbestos cement roofs exposing asbestos, making it friable as the height of most rural houses roofed with asbestos cement is too small to have effective air circulation. In addition, on the roofs of Indian slums, where it is sawn and fixed by hand, it’s difficult to avoid releasing a large number of dangerous fibers. The inhabitants paint their asbestos roofing with emulsion paint which also deteriorates it, rapidly resulting in discoloration and mould growth. As a result, Asbestos related diseases are more common in the slum area. In this study, Asbestos cement sample was randomly scanned at various magnifications to identify asbestos fibers and determine how asbestos fibers are mixed with construction materials. Laboratory analyses were performed on the asbestos cement sample to establish a relationship between: i) morphology (shape of the crystals), ii) the asbestos cement mineralogical composition using SEM analyses and iii) high magnification structure of the individual fibers (fibrils), as well as iv) energy dispersive x-ray analysis of the fiber chemistry by comparison to a standard. Also, quantification analysis of fiber length and thickness was performed due to the reason that fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are both dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. There are several standards specified under the Factories Act and Mines Act including limits of exposure. But standards in India are only on paper. All forms of asbestos pose grave to human health. All are proven human carcinogens. There is no continued justification for the use of asbestos. Its production and use should be banned worldwide. A global ban on asbestos is needed.

The Microscope

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015012615715
Genre : Crystals
File Size : 55. 69 MB
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Vol. 3 adds section "The Entomological monthly."

Iawa Journal

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P01094132G
Genre : Wood
File Size : 68. 80 MB
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Introduction To X Ray Spectrometric Analysis

Author : Eugene P. Bertin
ISBN : 9781489922045
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 52 MB
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X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been an established, widely practiced method of instrumental chemical analysis for about 30 years. However, although many colleges and universities offer full-semester courses in optical spectrometric methods of instrumental analysis and in x-ray dif fraction, very few offer full courses in x-ray spectrometric analysis. Those courses that are given are at the graduate level. Consequently, proficiency in this method must still be acquired by: self-instruction; on-the-job training and experience; "workshops" held by the x-ray instrument manu facturers; the one- or two-week summer courses offered by a few uni versities; and certain university courses in analytical and clinical chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy. geology, ceramics. etc. that devote a small portion of their time to applications of x-ray spectrometry to those respective disciplines. Moreover, with all due respect to the books on x-ray spectrometric analysis now in print, in my opinion none is really suitable as a text or manual for beginners in the discipline. In 1968, when I undertook the writing of the first edition of my previous book, Principles and Practice of X-Ray Spectrometric Analysis,* my objective was to provide a student text. However, when all the material was compiled, I decided to provide a more comprehensive book, which was also lacking at that time. Although that book explains principles, instrumentation, and methods at the begin ner's level, this material is distributed throughout a mass of detail and more advanced material.

Materials Characterization Techniques

Author : Sam Zhang
ISBN : 9781420042955
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78. 96 MB
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Experts must be able to analyze and distinguish all materials, or combinations of materials, in use today—whether they be metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, or composites. To understand a material’s structure, how that structure determines its properties, and how that material will subsequently work in technological applications, researchers apply basic principles of chemistry, physics, and biology to address its scientific fundamentals, as well as how it is processed and engineered for use. Emphasizing practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used, advanced surface and structural characterization techniques for quality assurance, contamination control, and process improvement. This useful volume: Explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies Provides analysis of materials’ performance under specific use conditions Focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence between processing, structure, properties, and performance Details the sophisticated instruments involved in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the wide range of mutually interacting processes, mechanisms, and materials Covers electron, X-ray-photoelectron, and UV spectroscopy; scanning-electron, atomic-force, transmission-electron, and laser-confocal-scanning-florescent microscopy, and gel electrophoresis chromatography Presents the fundamentals of vacuum, as well as X-ray diffraction principles Explaining appropriate uses and related technical requirements for characterization techniques, the authors omit lengthy and often intimidating derivations and formulations. Instead, they emphasize useful basic principles and applications of modern technologies used to characterize engineering materials, helping readers grasp micro- and nanoscale properties. This text will serve as a valuable guide for scientists and engineers involved in characterization and also as a powerful introduction to the field for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

The Metallurgist And Materials Technologist

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015029630947
Genre : Metallurgy
File Size : 28. 43 MB
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Books In Series

Author :
ISBN : 0835221091
Genre : Monographic series
File Size : 90. 12 MB
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The Chartered Mechanical Engineer

Author :
ISBN : CORNELL:31924057159786
Genre : Mechanical engineering
File Size : 44. 37 MB
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Investigations And Applications Of Severe Plastic Deformation

Author : Terry Lowe
ISBN : 9789401140621
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38. 11 MB
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Material processing techniques that employ severe plastic deformation have evolved over the past decade, producing metals, alloys and composites having extraordinary properties. Variants of SPD methods are now capable of creating monolithic materials with submicron and nanocrystalline grain sizes. The resulting novel properties of these materials has led to a growing scientific and commercial interest in them. They offer the promise of bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural; applications, including nanocomposites of lightweight alloys with unprecedented strength. These materials may also enable the use of alternative metal shaping processes, such as high strain rate superplastic forming. Prospective applications for medical, automotive, aerospace and other industries are already under development.

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