fundamentals of cavitation 76 fluid mechanics and its applications

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Fundamentals Of Cavitation

Author : Jean-Pierre Franc
ISBN : 9781402022333
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 5 MB
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This book treats cavitation, which is a unique phenomenon in the field of hyd- dynamics, although it can occur in any hydraulic machinery such as pumps, propellers, artificial hearts, and so forth. Cavitation is generated not only in water, but also in any kind of fluid, such as liquid hydrogen. The generation of cavitation can cause severe damage in hydraulic machinery. Therefore, the prevention of cavitation is an important concern for designers of hydraulic machinery. On the contrary, there is great potential to utilize cavitation in various important applications, such as environmental protection. There have been several books published on cavitation, including one by the same authors. This book differs from those previous ones, in that it is both more physical and more theoretical. Any theoretical explanation of the cavitation phenomenon is rather difficult, but the authors have succeeded in explaining it very well, and a reader can follow the equations easily. It is an advantage in reading this book to have some understanding of the physics of cavitation. Therefore, this book is not an introductory text, but a book for more advanced study. However, this does not mean that this book is too difficult for a beginner, because it explains the cavitation phenomenon using many figures. Therefore, even a beginner on cavitation can read and can understand what cavitation is. If the student studies through this book (with patience), he or she can become an expert on the physics of cavitation.

Aquananotechnology

Author : David E. Reisner
ISBN : 9781466512252
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 97 MB
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The world’s fresh water supplies are dwindling rapidly—even wastewater is now considered an asset. By 2025, most of the world's population will be facing serious water stresses and shortages. Aquananotechnology: Global Prospects breaks new ground with its informative and innovative introduction of the application of nanotechnology to the remediation of contaminated water for drinking and industrial use. It provides a comprehensive overview, from a global perspective, of the latest research and developments in the use of nanotechnology for water purification and desalination methods. The book also covers approaches to remediation such as high surface area nanoscale media for adsorption of toxic species, UV treatment of pathogens, and regeneration of saturated media with applications in municipal water supplies, produced water from fracking, ballast water, and more. It also discusses membranes, desalination, sensing, engineered polymers, magnetic nanomaterials, electrospun nanofibers, photocatalysis, endocrine disruptors, and Al13 clusters. It explores physics-based phenomena such as subcritical water and cavitation-induced sonoluminescence, and fog harvesting. With contributions from experts in developed and developing countries, including those with severe contamination, such as China, India, and Pakistan, the book’s content spans a wide range of the subject areas that fall under the aquananotechnology banner, either squarely or tangentially. The book strongly emphasizes sorption media, with broad application to a myriad of contaminants—both geogenic and anthropogenic—keeping in mind that it is not enough for water to be potable, it must also be palatable.

Energy Dissipation In Hydraulic Structures

Author : Hubert Chanson
ISBN : 9781315680293
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79. 48 MB
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Recent advances in technology have permitted the construction of large dams, reservoirs and channels. This progress has necessitated the development of new design and construction techniques, particularly with the provision of adequate flood release facilities. Chutes and spillways are designed to spill large water discharges over a hydraulic structure (e.g. dam, weir) without major damage to the structure itself and to its environment. At the hydraulic structure, the flood waters rush as an open channel flow or free-falling jet, and it is essential to dissipate a very signifi cant part of the flow kinetic energy to avoid damage to the hydraulic structure and its surroundings. Energy dissipation may be realised by a wide range of design techniques. A number of modern developments have demonstrated that such energy dissipation may be achieved (a) along the chute, (b) in a downstream energy dissipator, or (c) a combination of both. The magnitude of turbulent energy that must be dissipated in hydraulic structures is enormous even in small rural and urban structures. For a small storm waterway discharging at a 4 m3/s mm high drop, the turbulent kinetic energy flux per unit time is 120 kW! At a large dam, the rate of energy dissipation can exceed tens to hundreds of gigawatts; that is, many times the energy production rate of nuclear power plants. Many engineers have never been exposed to the complexity of energy dissipator designs, to the physical processes taking place and to the structural challenges. Several energy dissipators, spillways and storm waterways failed because of poor engineering design. It is believed that a major issue affecting these failures was the lack of understanding of the basic turbulent dissipation processes and of the interactions between free-surface aeration and flow turbulence. In that context, an authoritative reference book on energy dissipation in hydraulic structures is proposed here. The book contents encompass a range of design techniques including block ramps, stepped spillways, hydraulic jump stilling basins, ski jumps and impact dissipators.

Cavitation In Non Newtonian Fluids

Author : Emil Brujan
ISBN : 3642153437
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61. 94 MB
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Non-Newtonian properties on bubble dynamics and cavitation are fundamentally different from those of Newtonian fluids. The most significant effect arises from the dramatic increase in viscosity of polymer solutions in an extensional flow, such as that generated about a spherical bubble during its growth or collapse phase. In addition, many biological fluids, such as blood, synovial fluid, and saliva, have non-Newtonian properties and can display significant viscoelastic behaviour. This monograph elucidates general aspects of bubble dynamics and cavitation in non-Newtonian fluids and applies them to the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering. In addition it presents many examples from the process industries. The field is strongly interdisciplinary and the numerous disciplines involve have and will continue to overlook and reinvent each others’ work. This book helps researchers to think intuitively about the diverse physics of these systems, to attempt to bridge the various communities involved, and to convey the interest, elegance, and variety of physical phenomena that manifest themselves on the micrometer and microsecond scales.

Cavitation In Non Newtonian Fluids

Author : Emil Brujan
ISBN : 3642153437
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 42 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Non-Newtonian properties on bubble dynamics and cavitation are fundamentally different from those of Newtonian fluids. The most significant effect arises from the dramatic increase in viscosity of polymer solutions in an extensional flow, such as that generated about a spherical bubble during its growth or collapse phase. In addition, many biological fluids, such as blood, synovial fluid, and saliva, have non-Newtonian properties and can display significant viscoelastic behaviour. This monograph elucidates general aspects of bubble dynamics and cavitation in non-Newtonian fluids and applies them to the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering. In addition it presents many examples from the process industries. The field is strongly interdisciplinary and the numerous disciplines involve have and will continue to overlook and reinvent each others’ work. This book helps researchers to think intuitively about the diverse physics of these systems, to attempt to bridge the various communities involved, and to convey the interest, elegance, and variety of physical phenomena that manifest themselves on the micrometer and microsecond scales.

Cavitation And Bubble Dynamics

Author : Christopher Earls Brennen
ISBN : 9781107513587
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 79 MB
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Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics deals with the fundamental physical processes of bubble dynamics and the phenomenon of cavitation. It is ideal for graduate students and research engineers and scientists, and a basic knowledge of fluid flow and heat transfer is assumed. The analytical methods presented are developed from basic principles. The book begins with a chapter on nucleation and describes both the theory and observations in flowing and non-flowing systems. Three chapters provide a systematic treatment of the dynamics and growth, collapse, or oscillation of individual bubbles in otherwise quiescent fluids. The following chapters summarise the motion of bubbles in liquids, describe some of the phenomena that occur in homogeneous bubbly flows, with emphasis on cloud cavitation, and summarise some of the experimental observations of cavitating flows. The last chapter provides a review of free streamline methods used to treat separated cavity flows with large attached cavities.

Fluid Vortices

Author : Beverley Green
ISBN : 0792333764
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85. 88 MB
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Fluid Vortices is a comprehensive, up-to-date, research-level overview covering all salient flows in which fluid vortices play a significant role. The various chapters have been written by specialists from North America, Europe and Asia, making for unsurpassed depth and breadth of coverage. Topics addressed include fundamental vortex flows (mixing layer vortices, vortex rings, wake vortices, vortex stability, etc.), industrial and environmental vortex flows (aero-propulsion system vortices, vortex-structure interaction, atmospheric vortices, computational methods with vortices, etc.), and multiphase vortex flows (free-surface effects, vortex cavitation, and bubble and particle interactions with vortices). The book can also be recommended as an advanced graduate-level supplementary textbook. The first nine chapters of the book are suitable for a one-term course; chapters 10--19 form the basis for a second one-term course.

Foundations And Applications Of Mechanics Continuum Mechanics

Author : C. S. Jog
ISBN : 0849324149
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66. 73 MB
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Foundations and Applications of Mechanics, Volume I: Continuum Mechanics explores topics that have come into prominence during the latter half of the twentieth century, such as material frame-indifference, the implications of the second law of thermodynamics, and material symmetry. Jog shows how the classical theories of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and rigid-body dynamics follow from the general continuum equations. Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, the book provides examples that explore the link between mathematics and physical reality without losing mathematical rigor.

Sediment Transport

Author : Albert Gyr
ISBN : 9781402050169
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39. 42 MB
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This textbook discusses the fundamental principles of sediment transport in the geophysical context of rivers. It is intended as both a course textbook and as a guide for the practical engineer. It begins begin by describing phenomena such as bed load and suspension transport from a classical perspective. Concepts from turbulent flow regime are introduced to address the limitations of the classical approach to various aspects of sediment transport.

Cavitation

Author : Yves Lecoffre
ISBN : 9054107839
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 29 MB
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This text deals with the concept that cavitation is the main limitation to the performance of hydraulic components. Topics covered include the vaporization of liquids due to high velocities or pressure fluctuations, and the effects of cavitation on the performances of rotary machinery. One chapter is devoted to cavitation noise which concerns many users, including surface ships and submarines, and the author finishes with some examples of the use of cavitation and subject-specific measuring techniques.

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