fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves crc series in pure and applied physics

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Fundamentals And Applications Of Ultrasonic Waves Second Edition

Author : J. David N. Cheeke
ISBN : 9781439854945
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 34 MB
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Written at an intermediate level in a way that is easy to understand, Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves, Second Edition provides an up-to-date exposition of ultrasonics and some of its main applications. Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition emphasizes underlying physical concepts over mathematics. The first half covers the fundamentals of ultrasonic waves for isotropic media. Starting with bulk liquid and solid media, discussion extends to surface and plate effects, at which point the author introduces new modes such as Rayleigh and Lamb waves. This focus on only isotropic media simplifies the usually complex mathematics involved, enabling a clearer understanding of the underlying physics to avoid the complicated tensorial description characteristic of crystalline media. The second part of the book addresses a broad spectrum of industrial and research applications, including quartz crystal resonators, surface acoustic wave devices, MEMS and microacoustics, and acoustic sensors. It also provides a broad discussion on the use of ultrasonics for non-destructive evaluation. The author concentrates on the developing area of microacoustics, including exciting new work on the use of probe microscopy techniques in nanotechnology. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, as well as their propagation, technology, and applications, this book addresses viscoelasticity, as well as new concepts in acoustic microscopy. It updates coverage of ultrasonics in nature and developments in sonoluminescence, and it also compares new technologies, including use of atomic force acoustic microscopy and lasers. Highlighting both direct and indirect applications for readers working in neighboring disciplines, the author presents particularly important sections on the use of microacoustics and acoustic nanoprobes in next-generation devices and instruments.

Physics Of The Sun

Author : Dermott J. Mullan
ISBN : 9781420083088
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 32 MB
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With an emphasis on numerical modeling, Physics of the Sun: A First Course presents a quantitative examination of the physical structure of the Sun and the conditions of its extended atmosphere. It gives step-by-step instructions for calculating the numerical values of various physical quantities. The text covers a wide range of topics on the Sun and stellar astrophysics, including the structure of the Sun, solar radiation, the solar atmosphere, and Sun-space interactions. It explores how the physical conditions in the visible surface of the Sun are determined by the opacity of the material in the atmosphere. It also presents the empirical properties of convection in the Sun and discusses how the physical parameters increase with depth through the convection zone. The author shows how certain types of "real stars" are actually polytropes and offers a simplified version of oscillation equations to highlight the properties of p- and g-modes in the Sun. He also focuses on the initial temperature rise into the chromosphere, why the temperature in the quiet corona has the value it does, and how the physics of magnetic fields help us to understand various striking phenomena that are observed on the Sun. This text enables a practical appreciation of the physical models of solar processes. Through the included numerical modeling problems, it encourages a firm grasp of the numerical values of actual physical parameters as a function of radial location in the Sun.

American Book Publishing Record

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ISBN : STANFORD:36105111052911
Genre : Books
File Size : 87. 37 MB
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Introduction To Molecular Biophysics

Author : Jack A. Tuszynski
ISBN : 0203009967
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 96 MB
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Molecular biophysics is a rapidly growing field of research that plays an important role in elucidating the mysteries of life's molecules and their assemblies, as well as the relationship between their structure and function. Introduction to Molecular Biophysics fills an existing gap in the literature on this subject by providing the reader with the modern theoretical tools needed to understand life processes from a physical viewpoint. The authors review numerous topics of relevance to biophysics, including peptide chains, DNA structure and function, cytoplasm, membranes, and motor proteins. Each chapter is richly illustrated and contains numerous examples, references, and problems that make this book useful as both an inclusive reference work and textbook.

High Field Electrodynamics

Author : Frederic V. Hartemann
ISBN : 9781420038552
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 79 MB
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Tremendous technological developments and rapid progress in theory have opened a new area of modern physics called high-field electrodynamics: the systematic study of the interaction of relativistic electrons or positrons with ultrahigh-intensity, coherent electromagnetic radiation. This advanced undergraduate/graduate-level text provides a detailed introduction to high-field electrodynamics, from its fundamentals to some of its important modern applications. The author describes a broad collection of theoretical techniques, and where possible, approaches derivations by at least two different routes to yield deeper physical insight and a wider range of mathematical and physical techniques. He also discusses some of the outstanding ramifications of electrodynamics in areas ranging from quantum optics, squeezed states, and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox to rotating black holes, non-Abelian gauge field theories, and the Bohm-Aharanov effect. High-Field Electrodynamics gives a comprehensive description of the theoretical tools needed to approach this novel discipline. It highlights important modern applications and serves as a starting point for more advanced and specialized research at the frontiers of modern physics.

Molecular And Cellular Biophysics

Author : Jack A. Tuszynski
ISBN : 9781420011722
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 64 MB
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From quantum theory to statistical mechanics, the methodologies of physics are often used to explain some of life's most complex biological problems. Exploring this challenging yet fascinating area of study, Molecular and Cellular Biophysics covers both molecular and cellular structures as well as the biophysical processes that occur in these structures. Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics courses, this textbook features a quantitative approach that avoids being too abstract in its presentation. Logically organized from small-scale (molecular) to large-scale (cellular) systems, the text first defines life, discussing the scientific controversies between mechanists and vitalists, the characteristics of living things, and the evolution of life. It then delves into molecular structures, including nucleic acids, DNA, RNA, interatomic interactions, and hydrogen bonds. After looking at these smaller systems, the author probes the larger cellular structures. He examines the cytoplasm, the cytoskeleton, chromosomes, mitochondria, motor proteins, and more. The book concludes with discussions on biophysical processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, diffusion, bioenergetics, conformational transitions in proteins, vesicle transport, subcellular structure formation, and cell division.

Practical Quantum Electrodynamics

Author : Douglas M. Gingrich
ISBN : 9781420010688
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 38 MB
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Taking a heuristic approach to relativistic quantum mechanics, Practical Quantum Electrodynamics provides a complete introduction to the theory, methodologies, and calculations used for explaining the physical interaction of charged particles. This book combines the principles of relativity and quantum theory necessary for performing the calculations of the electromagnetic scattering of electrons and positrons and the emission and absorption of photons. Beginning with an introduction of the wave equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles, the author compares and contrasts the relativistic and spin effects for both types of particles. He emphasizes how the relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics and the spin-1/2 degree of freedom are necessary to describe electromagnetic interactions involving electron scattering and points out the shortfalls of the wave-equation approach to relativistic quantum mechanics. Developing the Feynman rules for quantum electrodynamics by example, the book offers an intuitive, hands-on approach for performing fundamental calculations. It also illustrates how to perform calculations that can be related to experiments such as diagrams, lifetimes, and cross sections. Practical Quantum Electrodynamics builds a strong foundation for further studies and research in theoretical and particle physics, particularly relativistic quantum field theory or nonrelativistic many-body theory.

Concepts In Quantum Mechanics

Author : Vishnu S. Mathur
ISBN : 1420078739
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 30 MB
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Taking a conceptual approach to the subject, Concepts in Quantum Mechanics provides complete coverage of both basic and advanced topics. Following in the footsteps of Dirac’s classic work Principles of Quantum Mechanics, it explains all themes from first principles. The authors present alternative ways of representing the state of a physical system, outline the mathematical connection between the representatives of the same state in different representations, and highlight the connection between Dirac brackets and their integral forms in the coordinate and momentum representations. They also logically develop the equations of motion in Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures. In addition, the book covers motion in the presence of potential steps and wells, bound state problems, symmetries and their consequences, the role of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, approximation methods, time-dependent perturbation methods, and second quantization. Written by authoritative professors who have taught quantum mechanics at the graduate level for a combined forty years, this textbook provides students with a strong foundation in quantum mechanics. After reading the book, students will be ready to take on quantum field theory.

Proceedings

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015068678146
Genre : Engineering
File Size : 72. 24 MB
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Ultrasound In Food Processing

Author : Mar Villamiel
ISBN : 9781118964170
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70. 29 MB
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Part I: Fundamentals of ultrasound This part will cover the main basic principles of ultrasound generation and propagation and those phenomena related to low and high intensity ultrasound applications. The mechanisms involved in food analysis and process monitoring and in food process intensification will be shown. Part II: Low intensity ultrasound applications Low intensity ultrasound applications have been used for non-destructive food analysis as well as for process monitoring. Ultrasonic techniques, based on velocity, attenuation or frequency spectrum analysis, may be considered as rapid, simple, portable and suitable for on-line measurements. Although industrial applications of low-intensity ultrasound, such as meat carcass evaluation, have been used in the food industry for decades, this section will cover the most novel applications, which could be considered as highly relevant for future application in the food industry. Chapters addressing this issue will be divided into three subsections: (1) food control, (2) process monitoring, (3) new trends. Part III: High intensity ultrasound applications High intensity ultrasound application constitutes a way to intensify many food processes. However, the efficient generation and application of ultrasound is essential to achieving a successful effect. This part of the book will begin with a chapter dealing with the importance of the design of efficient ultrasonic application systems. The medium is essential to achieve efficient transmission, and for that reason the particular challenges of applying ultrasound in different media will be addressed. The next part of this section constitutes an up-to-date vision of the use of high intensity ultrasound in food processes. The chapters will be divided into four sections, according to the medium in which the ultrasound vibration is transmitted from the transducers to the product being treated. Thus, solid, liquid, supercritical and gas media have been used for ultrasound propagation. Previous books addressing ultrasonic applications in food processing have been based on the process itself, so chapters have been divided in mass and heat transport, microbial inactivation, etc. This new book will propose a revolutionary overview of ultrasonic applications based on (in the authors’ opinion) the most relevant factor affecting the efficiency of ultrasound applications: the medium in which ultrasound is propagated. Depending on the medium, ultrasonic phenomena can be completely different, but it also affects the complexity of the ultrasonic generation, propagation and application. In addition, the effect of high intensity ultrasound on major components of food, such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids will be also covered, since this type of information has not been deeply studied in previous books. Other aspects related to the challenges of food industry to incorporate ultrasound devices will be also considered. This point is also very important since, in the last few years, researchers have made huge efforts to integrate fully automated and efficient ultrasound systems to the food production lines but, in some cases, it was not satisfactory. In this sense, it is necessary to identify and review the main related problems to efficiently produce and transmit ultrasound, scale-up, reduce cost, save energy and guarantee the production of safe, healthy and high added value foods.

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