from classical to quantum mechanics an introduction to the formalism foundations and applications

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From Classical To Quantum Mechanics

Author : Giampiero Esposito
ISBN : 1139450549
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 86 MB
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This 2004 textbook provides a pedagogical introduction to the formalism, foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. Part I covers the basic material which is necessary to understand the transition from classical to wave mechanics. Topics include classical dynamics, with emphasis on canonical transformations and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the Cauchy problem for the wave equation, Helmholtz equation and eikonal approximation, introduction to spin, perturbation theory and scattering theory. The Weyl quantization is presented in Part II, along with the postulates of quantum mechanics. Part III is devoted to topics such as statistical mechanics and black-body radiation, Lagrangian and phase-space formulations of quantum mechanics, and the Dirac equation. This book is intended for use as a textbook for beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It is self-contained and includes problems to aid the reader's understanding.

Open Quantum Physics And Environmental Heat Conversion Into Usable Energy

Author : Eliade Stefanescu
ISBN : 9781681084190
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 35 MB
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The second volume of this book series presents a foundation for describing electron-field interactions, the basic elements involved in open quantum theory, the dissipative couplings of the active elements, the quantum injection dot electrons and coherent electromagnetic fields produced by crystal lattice vibrations. A microscopic description of the systems of interest is used to explain a number of structural models that describe electron arrangement and mechanics in such systems. The explanation of these models depends on a number of numerical parameters and calculations which have been explicitly discussed in detail. Readers will gain a better understanding of open quantum systems and energy conversion in semiconductor devices. Theoretical calculations presented in this book can also be compared with experimental data from prior experiments. The volume is also supplemented by an adequate bibliography which provides useful references. This book is a handy text on advanced quantum theory for advanced physics and electronics students and researchers.

Optical Spectroscopy In Chemistry And Life Sciences

Author : Werner Schmidt
ISBN : 3527299114
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 74 MB
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This book is a compact and simultaneously comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of optical spectroscopy. The author skillfully leads the reader from the basics to practical applications. The main topics covered are: - theory of optical spectroscopy - components of spectrometers (light sources, filters, lenses and mirror chromators, detectors, cuvettes) - evaluation of data and interpretation of spectra Such important methods as absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, scattering and reflection spectroscopy, photoaccustic spectroscopy, spectroscopy of atoms, polarimetry and near infrared spectroscopy are covered in depth. A useful appendix with the addresses of pertinent equipment manufacturers rounds off the work.

Foundations Of Quantum Mechanics An Empiricist Approach

Author : W.M. de Muynck
ISBN : 9780306480478
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 91 MB
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Taking a new perspective provided by a generalization of the mathematical formalism encompassing positive operator-valued measures, this book views old and new problems of the foundations of quantum mechanics. It demonstrates the crucial role of the generalized formalism in fundamental issues and practical applications.

Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals

Author : Kurt Gottfried
ISBN : 0387955763
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 45 MB
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Quantum mechanics was already an old and solidly established subject when the first edition of this book appeared in 1966. The context in which a graduate text on quantum mechanics is studied today has changed a good deal, however. In 1966, most entering physics graduate students had a quite limited exposure to quan tum mechanics in the form of wave mechanics. Today the standard undergraduate curriculum contains a large dose of elementary quantum mechanics, and often intro duces the abstract formalism due to Dirac. Back then, the study of the foundations by theorists and experimenters was close to dormant, and very few courses spent any time whatever on this topic. At that very time, however, John Bell's famous theorem broke the ice, and there has been a great flowering ever since, especially in the laboratory thanks to the development of quantum optics, and more recently because of the interest in quantum computing. And back then, the Feynman path integral was seen by most as a very imaginative but rather useless formulation of quantum mechanics, whereas it now plays a large role in statistical physics and quantum field theory, especially in computational work. For these and other reasons, this book is not just a revision of the 1966 edition. It has been rewritten throughout, is differently organized, and goes into greater depth on many topics that were in the old edition.

Applications Of Quantum Mechanical Techniques To Areas Outside Of Quantum Mechanics

Author : Emmanuel Haven
ISBN : 9782889454273
Genre :
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This book deals with applications of quantum mechanical techniques to areas outside of quantum mechanics, so-called quantum-like modeling. Research in this area has grown over the last 15 years. But even already more than 50 years ago, the interaction between Physics Nobelist Pauli and the psychologist Carl Jung in the 1950's on seeking to find analogous uses of the complementarity principle from quantum mechanics in psychology needs noting. This book does NOT want to advance that society is quantum mechanical! The macroscopic world is manifestly not quantum mechanical. But this rules not out that one can use concepts and the mathematical apparatus from quantum physics in a macroscopic environment. A mainstay ingredient of quantum mechanics, is 'quantum probability' and this tool has been proven to be useful in the mathematical modelling of decision making. In the most basic experiment of quantum physics, the double slit experiment, it is known (from the works of A. Khrennikov) that the law of total probability is violated. It is now well documented that several decision making paradoxes in psychology and economics (such as the Ellsberg paradox) do exhibit this violation of the law of total probability. When data is collected with experiments which test 'non-rational' decision making behaviour, one can observe that such data often exhibits a complex non-commutative structure, which may be even more complex than if one considers the structure allied to the basic two slit experiment. The community exploring quantum-like models has tried to address how quantum probability can help in better explaining those paradoxes. Research has now been published in very high standing journals on resolving some of the paradoxes with the mathematics of quantum physics. The aim of this book is to collect the contributions of world's leading experts in quantum like modeling in decision making, psychology, cognition, economics, and finance.

The Palgrave Handbook Of Quantum Models In Social Science

Author : Emmanuel Haven
ISBN : 9781137492760
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57. 27 MB
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It is not intuitive to accept that there exists a link between quantum physical systems and cognitive systems. However, recent research has shown that cognitive systems and collective (social) systems, including biology, exhibit uncertainty which can be successfully modelled with quantum probability. The use of such probability allows for the modelling of situations which typically violate the laws of classical probability. The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science is is a unique volume that brings together contributions from leading experts on key topics in this new and emerging field. Completely self-contained, it begins with an introductory section which gathers all the fundamental notions required to be able to understand later chapters. The handbook then moves on to address some of the latest research and applications for quantum methods in social science disciplines, including economics, politics and psychology. It begins with the issue of how the quantum mechanical framework can be applied to economics. Chapters devoted to this topic range from how Fisher information can be argued to play a role in economics, to the foundations and application of quantum game theory. The handbook then progresses in considering how belief states can be updated with the theory of quantum measurements (and also with more general methods). The practical use of the Hilbert space (and Fock space) in decision theory is then introduced, and open quantum systems are also considered. The handbook also treats a model of neural oscillators that reproduces some of the features of quantum cognition. Other contributions delve into causal reasoning using quantum Bayes nets and the role of quantum probability in modelling so called affective evaluation. The handbook is rounded off with two chapters which discuss the grand challenges which lie ahead of us. How can the quantum formalism be justified in social science and is the traditional quantum formalism too restrictive? Finally, a question is posed: whether there is a necessary role for quantum mathematical models to go beyond physics. This book will bring the latest and most cutting edge research on quantum theory to social science disciplines. Students and researchers across the discipline, as well as those in the fields of physics and mathematics will welcome this important addition to the literature.

The Formalisms Of Quantum Mechanics

Author : Francois David
ISBN : 9783319105390
Genre : Science
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These lecture notes present a concise and introductory, yet as far as possible coherent, view of the main formalizations of quantum mechanics and of quantum field theories, their interrelations and their theoretical foundations. The “standard” formulation of quantum mechanics (involving the Hilbert space of pure states, self-adjoint operators as physical observables, and the probabilistic interpretation given by the Born rule) on one hand, and the path integral and functional integral representations of probabilities amplitudes on the other, are the standard tools used in most applications of quantum theory in physics and chemistry. Yet, other mathematical representations of quantum mechanics sometimes allow better comprehension and justification of quantum theory. This text focuses on two of such representations: the algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics and the “quantum logic” approach. Last but not least, some emphasis will also be put on understanding the relation between quantum physics and special relativity through their common roots - causality, locality and reversibility, as well as on the relation between quantum theory, information theory, correlations and measurements, and quantum gravity. Quantum mechanics is probably the most successful physical theory ever proposed and despite huge experimental and technical progresses in over almost a century, it has never been seriously challenged by experiments. In addition, quantum information science ha s become an important and very active field in recent decades, further enriching the many facets of quantum physics. Yet, there is a strong revival of the discussions about the principles of quantum mechanics and its seemingly paradoxical aspects: sometimes the theory is portrayed as the unchallenged and dominant paradigm of modern physical sciences and technologies while sometimes it is considered a still mysterious and poorly understood theory, waiting for a revolution. This volume, addressing graduate students and seasoned researchers alike, aims to contribute to the reconciliation of these two facets of quantum mechanics.

Introduction To Quantum Mechanics

Author : H. J. W. Mller-Kirsten
ISBN : 9789812566911
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 97 MB
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After a consideration of basic quantum mechanics, this introduction aims at a side by side treatment of fundamental applications of the Schr”dinger equation on the one hand and the applications of the path integral on the other. Different from traditional texts and using a systematic perturbation method, the solution of Schr”dinger equations includes also those with anharmonic oscillator potentials, periodic potentials, screened Coulomb potentials and a typical singular potential, as well as the investigation of the large order behavior of the perturbation series. On the path integral side, after introduction of the basic ideas, the expansion around classical configurations in Euclidean time, such as instantons, is considered, and the method is applied in particular to anharmonic oscillator and periodic potentials. Numerous other aspects are treated on the way, thus providing the reader an instructive overview over diverse quantum mechanical phenomena, e.g. many other potentials, Green's functions, comparison with WKB, calculation of lifetimes and sojourn times, derivation of generating functions, the Coulomb problem in various coordinates, etc. All calculations are given in detail, so that the reader can follow every step.

A Condensed Course Of Quantum Mechanics

Author : Cejnar, Pavel
ISBN : 9788024623214
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 78 MB
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This book represents a concise summary of non-relativistic quantum mechanics on the level suitable for university students of physics. It covers, perhaps even slightly exceeds, a one-year course of about 50 lectures, requiring basic knowledge of calculus, algebra, classical mechanics and a bit of motivation for the quantum adventure. The exposition is succinct, with minimal narration, but with a maximum of explicit and hierarchically structured mathematical derivations. The text covers all essential topics of university courses of quantum mechanics – from general mathematical formalism to specific applications. The formulation of quantum theory is accompanied by illustrations of the general concepts of elementary quantum systems. Some subtleties of mathematical foundations are overviewed, but the formalism is used in an accessible, intuitive way. Besides the traditional topics of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, such as single-particle dynamics, symmetries, semiclassical and perturbative approximations, density-matrix formalism, scattering theory, theory of angular momentum, description of many-particle systems – the course also touches upon some modern issues, including quantum entanglement, decoherence, measurement, nonlocality, and quantum information. Historical context and chronology of basic achievements is outlined in brief remarks. The book is intended for beginners as a supplement to lectures, however, it may also be used by more advanced students as a compact and comprehensible overview of elementary quantum theory

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