francis galton pioneer of heredity and biometry

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Francis Galton

Author : Michael Bulmer
ISBN : 9780801881404
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 71 MB
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If not for the work of his half cousin Francis Galton, Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory might have met a somewhat different fate. In particular, with no direct evidence of natural selection and no convincing theory of heredity to explain it, Darwin needed a mathematical explanation of variability and heredity. Galton's work in biometry—the application of statistical methods to the biological sciences—laid the foundations for precisely that. This book offers readers a compelling portrait of Galton as the "father of biometry," tracing the development of his ideas and his accomplishments, and placing them in their scientific context. Though Michael Bulmer introduces readers to the curious facts of Galton's life—as an explorer, as a polymath and member of the Victorian intellectual aristocracy, and as a proponent of eugenics—his chief concern is with Galton's pioneering studies of heredity, in the course of which he invented the statistical tools of regression and correlation. Bulmer describes Galton's early ambitions and experiments—his investigations of problems of evolutionary importance (such as the evolution of gregariousness and the function of sex), and his movement from the development of a physiological theory to a purely statistical theory of heredity, based on the properties of the normal distribution. This work, culminating in the law of ancestral heredity, also put Galton at the heart of the bitter conflict between the "ancestrians" and the "Mendelians" after the rediscovery of Mendelism in 1900. A graceful writer and an expert biometrician, Bulmer details the eventual triumph of biometrical methods in the history of quantitative genetics based on Mendelian principles, which underpins our understanding of evolution today. -- A. W. F. Edwards, University of Cambridge, author of Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle and Likelihood

A Life Of Sir Francis Galton

Author : Nicholas Wright Gillham
ISBN : 0195349431
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 11 MB
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Few scientists have made lasting contributions to as many fields as Francis Galton. He was an important African explorer, travel writer, and geographer. He was the meteorologist who discovered the anticyclone, a pioneer in using fingerprints to identify individuals, the inventor of regression and correlation analysis in statistics, and the founder of the eugenics movement. Now, Nicholas Gillham paints an engaging portrait of this Victorian polymath. The book traces Galton's ancestry (he was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin and the cousin of Charles Darwin), upbringing, training as a medical apprentice, and experience as a Cambridge undergraduate. It recounts in colorful detail Galton's adventures as leader of his own expedition in Namibia. Darwin was always a strong influence on his cousin and a turning point in Galton's life was the publication of the Origin of Species. Thereafter, Galton devoted most of his life to human heredity, using then novel methods such as pedigree analysis and twin studies to argue that talent and character were inherited and that humans could be selectively bred to enhance these qualities. To this end, he founded the eugenics movement which rapidly gained momentum early in the last century. After Galton's death, however, eugenics took a more sinister path, as in the United States, where by 1913 sixteen states had involuntary sterilization laws, and in Germany, where the goal of racial purity was pushed to its horrific limit in the "final solution." Galton himself, Gillham writes, would have been appalled by the extremes to which eugenics was carried. Here then is a vibrant biography of a remarkable scientist as well as a superb portrait of science in the Victorian era.

Race Unmasked

Author : Michael Yudell
ISBN : 9780231537995
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 63 MB
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Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. Race Unmasked revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, Race Unmasked reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism. A gripping history of science and scientists, Race Unmasked elucidates the limitations of a racial worldview and throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.

The Art Of Evolution

Author : Barbara Jean Larson
ISBN : 1584657758
Genre : Art
File Size : 32. 61 MB
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A timely and stimulating collection of essays about the impact of Darwin's ideas on visual culture

Genealogies Of Genius

Author : Joyce E. Chaplin
ISBN : 9781137497673
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 26 MB
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The essays in this volume seek to examine the uses to which concepts of genius have been put in different cultures and times. Collectively, they are designed to make two new statements. First, seen in historical and comparative perspective, genius is not a natural fact and universal human constant that has been only recently identified by modern science, but instead a categorical mode of assessing human ability and merit. Second, as a concept with specific definitions and resonances, genius has performed specific cultural work within each of the societies in which it had a historical presence.

English Men Of Science

Author : Francis Galton
ISBN : RMS:RMSBUBIS000000836$$$8
Genre : Genetics
File Size : 43. 19 MB
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In Pursuit Of The Gene

Author : James Schwartz
ISBN : 9780674034914
Genre : Nature
File Size : 48. 60 MB
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Ranging from Darwin to the accomplishments of Nobel laureate Hermann J. Muller, a history of genetics as seen through the eyes of a dozen or so central players offers readers the background they need to understand the latest findings in genetics and future trends in the field.

Memories Of My Life

Author : Francis Galton
ISBN : UCSD:31822012967311
Genre : Scientists
File Size : 20. 20 MB
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Natural Inheritance

Author : Francis Galton
ISBN : STANFORD:24503378790
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 37. 51 MB
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In this book the first statistical study of biological variation and inheritance is represented. Galton used statistical methods and propounded a "law of filial regression".

Recent Progress In The Study Of Variation Heredity And Evolution

Author : Robert Heath Lock
ISBN : NYPL:33433010826265
Genre : Evolution
File Size : 85. 39 MB
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