forms souls and embryos neoplatonists on human reproduction issues in ancient philosophy

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Forms Souls And Embryos

Author : James Wilberding
ISBN : 9781317355250
Genre : History
File Size : 45. 92 MB
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Forms, Souls, and Embryos allows readers coming from different backgrounds to appreciate the depth and originality with which the Neoplatonists engaged with and responded to a number of philosophical questions central to human reproduction, including: What is the causal explanation of the embryo’s formation? How and to what extent are Platonic Forms involved? In what sense is a fetus ‘alive,’ and when does it become a human being? Where does the embryo’s soul come from, and how is it connected to its body? This is the first full-length study in English of this fascinating subject, and is a must-read for anyone interested in Neoplatonism or the history of medicine and embryology.

Flow And Flux In Plato S Philosophy

Author : Andrew J. Mason
ISBN : 9781317421870
Genre : History
File Size : 36. 90 MB
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In this bold new study, Andrew J. Mason seeks both to shed light on the key issue of flux in Plato’s work, and to show that there is also in Plato a notion of flow that needs to be distinguished from flux. Mason brings out the importance of this hitherto neglected distinction, and proposes on its basis a new way of understanding the development of Plato’s thought. The opposition between the ‘being’ of Forms and the ‘becoming’ or ‘flux’ of sensibles has been fundamental to the understanding of Plato from Aristotle to the present day. One key concern of this volume is to clarify which kinds or levels of flux Plato accepts in sensibles. In addition, Mason argues that this traditional approach is unsatisfactory, as it leaves out the important notion of flow. Unlike flux, flow is a kind of motion that does not entail intrinsic change. It is also not restricted to the sensible, but covers motions of soul as well, including the circular motion of nous (intelligence) that is crucial in Plato’s later thought, particularly his cosmology. In short, flow is not incompatible with ‘being’, and in this study Plato’s development is presented, largely, as his arrival at this view, in correction of his earlier conflation of flux and flow in establishing the dichotomy between being and becoming. Mason’s study offers fresh insights into many dialogues and difficult passages in Plato’s oeuvre, and situates Plato’s conception and usage of ‘flow’ and ‘flux’ in relation to earlier usage in the Greek poetic tradition and the Presocratic thinkers, particularly Heraclitus. The first study of its kind, Flow and Flux uncovers dimensions of Plato’s thinking that may reshape the way his philosophy is understood.

Irrtum Error Erreur

Author : Andreas Speer
ISBN : 9783110592191
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 87. 2 MB
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Gegenstand des Bandes ist eine umfassende Evaluation epistemischer, praktischer, veridiktiver Sachverhalte aus der Perspektive jener Modi des Nichtgelingens, der Störung oder der Irritation, die unter dem Stichwort „Irrtum“ verhandelt werden. Dies soll aber nicht nur aus der Perspektive der Negativität geschehen, vielmehr soll gefragt werden, inwieweit der Irrtum zum Ausgangspunkt und zur Bedingung gelingender epistemischer Praktiken zu werden vermag. Doch was ermöglicht und garantiert die Unterscheidung von Wahrheit und Irrtum? Was sind die Kriterien einer solchen Unterscheidung? Wer ist unter welchen Bedingungen in der Lage und berechtigt, den Irrtum zu erkennen und als einen solchen festzustellen? Welche Instanzen sind an dieser Unterscheidung beteiligt und hierfür legimitiert? Vermögen wir aus Irrtümern zu lernen? Hier tut sich ein breites Problemfeld auf, das sich zunächst aus dem Antagonismus von Irrtum und Wahrheit ergibt. Diesen Facetten von Irrtum soll in der ganzen interdisziplinären Breite in der lateinischen und griechisch-byzantinischen, in der arabischen und hebräischen Tradition, in der Laien- und der Gelehrtenwelt, aber auch in der Alltagskultur nachgegangen werden.

Ntroduction To Hydraulics And Pneumatics 3rd Ed

ISBN : 9788120353213
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 16 MB
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This introductory textbook designed for undergraduate courses in Hydraulics and Pneumatics/Fluid Power/Oil Hydraulics offered to Mechanical, Production, Industrial and Mechatronics students of Engineering disciplines, now in its third edition, introduces Hydraulic Proportional Valves and replaces some circuit designs with more clear drawings for better grasping. Besides focusing on the fundamentals, the book is a basic, practical guide that reflects field practices in design, operation and maintenance of fluid power systems—making it a useful reference for practising engineers specializing in the area of fluid power technology. It provides simple and logical explanation of programmable logic controllers used in hydraulic and pneumatic circuits. The accompanying CD-ROM acquaints readers with the engineering specifications of several pumps and valves being manufactured by the industry. KEY FEATURES • Gives step-by-step methods of designing hydraulic and pneumatic circuits. • Explains applications of hydraulic circuits in the machine tool industry. • Elaborates on practical problems in a chapter on troubleshooting. • Chapter-end review questions help students understand the fundamental principles and practical techniques for obtaining solutions. NEW TO THE THIRD EDITION • Provides clear drawings/circuits in the hydraulics section • Discusses ‘Cartridge Valves’ independently in Chapter 11 • Includes a new chapter on ‘Hydraulic Proportional Valves’ (Chapter 12)

Body And Soul In Ancient Philosophy

Author : Dorothea Frede
ISBN : 9783110216523
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 57. 85 MB
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The problem of body and soul has a long history that can be traced back to the beginnings of Greek culture. The existential question of what happened to the soul at the moment of death, whether and in what form there is life after death, and of the exact relationship between body and soul was answered in different ways in Greek philosophy, from the early days to Late Antiquity. The contributions in this volume not only do justice to the breadth of the topic, they also cover the entire period from the Pre-Socratics to Late Antiquity. Particular attention is paid to Plato, Aristotle and Hellenistic philosophers, that is the Stoics and the Epicureans.

The Middle Included

Author : Ömer Aygün
ISBN : 9780810134027
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 20. 82 MB
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The Middle Included is the first comprehensive account of the Ancient Greek word logos in Aristotelian philosophy. Logos means many things in the Aristotelian corpus: essential formula, proportion, reason, and language. Surveying these meanings in Aristotle’s logic, physics, and ethics, Ömer Aygün persuasively demonstrates that these divers meanings of logos all refer to a basic sense of “gathering” or “inclusiveness.” In this sense, logos functions as a counterpart to a formal version of the principles of non-contradiction and of the excluded middle in his corpus. Aygün thus shifts Aristotle’s traditional image from that of the father of formal logic, classificatory thinking, and exclusion to a more nuanced image of him as a thinker of inclusion. The Middle Included also explores human language in Aristotelian philosophy. After an account of acoustic phenomena and animal communication, Aygün argues that human language for Aristotle is the ability to understand and relay both first-hand experiences and non-first-hand experiences. This definition is key to understanding many core human experiences such as science, history, news media, education, sophistry, and indeed philosophy itself. Logos is thus never associated with any other animal nor with anything divine—it remains strictly and rigorously secular, humane, and yet full of the wonder.

Avicenna S Metaphysics In Context

Author : Robert Wisnovsky
ISBN : 9781501711527
File Size : 64. 35 MB
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The eleventh-century philosopher and physician Abu Ali ibn Sina (d. A.D. 1037) was known in the West by his Latinized name Avicenna. An analysis of the sources and evolution of Avicenna's metaphysics, this book focuses on the answers he and his predecessors gave to two fundamental pairs of questions: what is the soul and how does it cause the body; and what is God and how does He cause the world? To respond to these challenges, Avicenna invented new concepts and distinctions and reinterpreted old ones. The author concludes that Avicenna's innovations are a turning point in the history of metaphysics. Avicenna's metaphysics is the culmination of a period of synthesis during which philosophers fused together a Neoplatonic project (reconciling Plato with Aristotle) with a Peripatetic project (reconciling Aristotle with himself). Avicenna also stands at the beginning of a period during which philosophers sought to integrate the Arabic version of the earlier synthesis with Islamic doctrinal theology (kalam). Avicenna's metaphysics significantly influenced European scholastic thought, but it had an even more profound impact on Islamic intellectual history—the philosophical problems and opportunities associated with the Avicennian synthesis continued to be debated up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Form Without Matter

Author : Mark Eli Kalderon
ISBN : 9780198717904
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 24. 18 MB
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Mark Eli Kalderon presents an original study of perception, taking as its starting point a puzzle in Empedocles' theory of vision: if perception is a mode of material assimilation, how can we perceive colours at a distance? Kalderon argues that the theory of perception offered by Aristotle in answer to the puzzle is both attractive and defensible.

The Birth Of Rhetoric

Author : Robert Wardy
ISBN : 9781134757299
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65. 44 MB
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What is rhetoric? Is it the capacity to persuade? Or is it 'mere' rhetoric: the ability to get others to do what the speaker wants, regardless of what they want? This is the rhetoric of ideological manipulation and political seduction. Rhetoric is for some a distinctive mode of communication; for others, whenever someone speaks, rhetoric is present. This book is devoted to helping readers understand these rival accounts, by showing how it has happened that there are so many conceptions of rhetoric. Any such approach must be rooted in classical antiquity, since our ideas of rhetoric are the product of a complicated historical process starting in ancient Greece. Greek rhetoric was born in bitter controversy. The figure of Gorgias is at the centre of that debate and of this book: he invites us to confront the terrifying, exhilarating possibility that persuasion is just power.

Taurus Of Beirut

Author : Federico M. Petrucci
ISBN : 9781317280569
Genre : History
File Size : 55. 84 MB
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This volume is the first monograph devoted to the philosophy of Taurus of Beirut, and provides a long-awaited analysis of his texts and their first English translation. Through close examination of the extant witnesses, Petrucci gives a new account of Middle Platonism based on a fresh approach to the theological and cosmological view of Taurus. In this way, the book contributes substantially to the debate on Post-Hellenistic Platonism from the point of view of both exegetical methods and philosophical doctrines, and offers a starting point for a new understanding of many aspects of ancient thought.

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