forest monitoring methods for terrestrial investigations in europe with an overview of north america and asia developments in environmental science

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Forest Monitoring

Author :
ISBN : 9780080982250
Genre : Science
File Size : 21. 2 MB
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The demand for comparable, long-term, high quality data on forest ecosystems' status and changes is increasing at the international and global level. Yet, sources for such data are limited and in many case it is not possible to compare data from different monitoring initiatives across space and time because of methodological differences. Apart from technical manuals, there is no comprehensive multidisciplinary, scientific, peer-reviewed reference for forest monitoring methods that can serve and support the user community. This book provides in a single reference the state-of-the-art of monitoring methods as applied at the international level. The book present scientific concepts and methods that form the basis of the transnational, long-term forest monitoring in Europe and looks at other initiatives at the global level. Standardized methods that have been developed over two decades in international forest monitoring projects are presented. Emphasis is put on trans-nationally harmonized methods, related data quality issues, current achievements and on remaining open questions. A comprehensive overview of needs, requirements, organization and possible outcomes of an integrated monitoring program Tested and quality assured, internationally harmonized methodologies based on a complete revision of existing methods carried out in 2009-2011 Connection with monitoring results allows assessment of the potential of the monitoring method

Forest Monitoring

Author : Marco Ferretti
ISBN : 9780128055199
Genre : Nature
File Size : 82. 3 MB
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The international, multipartner, multiagency nature of the ICP Forests conditioned its design from the beginning, with a number of trade-offs necessary to accommodate specific needs, perspectives, and monitoring “traditions.” Reconciling these differences with the program objectives is a major challenge for program managers and stakeholders. In this chapter, basic design concepts and principles of the ICP Forests are described, together with more recent efforts undertaken to respond to that major challenge. Emphasis is placed on fixed-area plot design for both Levels I and II monitoring intensity, as well as the need to maintain data time series. The newly developed Quality Assurance perspective, the enhanced data management system, and the policy for intellectual property, publication, and data distribution are also important elements of the entire monitoring design.

Tropospheric Ozone And Its Impacts On Crop Plants

Author : Supriya Tiwari
ISBN : 9783319718736
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85. 23 MB
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The research and its outcomes presented here focuses on tropospheric or ground level ozone, in particular due to its surfacing as a major threat to crop productivity around the world. This book presents the ozone concentration data for a variety of geographical regions, examines the factors responsible for its increasing concentrations and its potential effects on physiological and biochemical responses culminating in crop productivity losses which, in turn may pose a serious threat to global food security. Beside this, certain ameliorative measures that could be adopted to assess ozone injury in plants are also discussed. Global climate change scenarios predict a significant increase in future tropospheric ozone concentration. Particular attention is therefore given to evaluate the effect of global climate change on ozone concentrations. Readers will also discover how yield losses due to ozone are related to changes in the socio-economic conditions of the society, especially in South Asian regions. Students and researchers studying crop and soil science, environmental scientists, risk assessment professionals and policy makers will find this book of interest.

Climate Change And Human Health

Author : Anthony J. McMichael
ISBN : 924156248X
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 26. 32 MB
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This publication, prepared jointly by the WHO, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, considers the public health challenges arising from global climate change and options for policy responses, with particular focus on the health sector. Aspects discussed include: an overview of historical developments and recent scientific assessments; weather and climate change; population vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of public health systems; the IPCC Third Assessment report; tasks for public health scientists; the health impacts of climate extremes; climate change, infectious diseases and the level of disease burdens; ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation and health; and methodological issues in monitoring health effects of climate change.

Plant And Vegetation Mapping

Author : Franco Pedrotti
ISBN : 9783642302350
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 34 MB
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The book is concerned principally with geobotanical mapping. Geobotany is a broad science that deals with the study of species and of vegetation communities in relation to the environment; it includes other, perhaps more familiar sciences, such as plant geography, plant ecology, and chorology, and phytosociology (plant sociology). Geobotanical cartography is a field of thematic cartography that deals with the interpretation and representation, in the form of maps, of those spatial and temporal phenomena that pertain to flora, vegetation, vegetated landscapes, vegetation zones, and phytogeographical units. The production of a geobotanical map represents the last stage in a cognitive process that begins with observations in the field and continues with the collection of sample data, interpretation of the phenomena observed, and their appropriate cartographic representation; geobotanical cartography is closely tied to the concepts and scope of geobotany in general

The State Of The World S Land And Water Resources For Food And Agriculture

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN : 9781136498879
Genre : Law
File Size : 29. 88 MB
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The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture is FAO's first flagship publication on the global status of land and water resources. It is an 'advocacy' report, to be published every three to five years, and targeted at senior level decision makers in agriculture as well as in other sectors. SOLAW is aimed at sensitizing its target audience on the status of land resources at global and regional levels and FAO's viewpoint on appropriate recommendations for policy formulation. SOLAW focuses on these key dimensions of analysis: (i) quantity, quality of land and water resources, (ii) the rate of use and sustainable management of these resources in the context of relevant socio-economic driving factors and concerns, including food security and poverty, and climate change. This is the first time that a global, baseline status report on land and water resources has been made. It is based on several global spatial databases (e.g. land suitability for agriculture, land use and management, land and water degradation and depletion) for which FAO is the world-recognized data source. Topical and emerging issues on land and water are dealt with in an integrated rather than sectoral manner. The implications of the status and trends are used to advocate remedial interventions which are tailored to major farming systems within different geographic regions.

Livestock S Long Shadow

Author : Henning Steinfeld
ISBN : 9251055718
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 35. 16 MB
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"The assessment builds on the work of the Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative"--Pref.

Forest Monitoring

Author : Urša Vilhar
ISBN : 9780128055229
Genre : Nature
File Size : 32. 93 MB
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The chapter describes methodologies for harmonized phenological assessments based on a limited set of development phases: flushing, flowering, secondary flushing, color change, and leaf/needle fall. Manual phenological observations are based on a brief examination in the forest stands. More recently, the use of terrestrial digital image photography for forest phenology monitoring has been adopted. Vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used for many years to quantify the phenology of different ecosystems. For satellite-based remote sensing of vegetation phenology, phenological metrics are derived from time series of optical data and represent the only possible assessment of phenology over large and inaccessible regions. All indirect methods using optical vegetation indices from digital camera or NDVI sensors need to be validated against ground observations, for which manual tree phenological observations from the forest monitoring plots are often used. Examples from phenological monitoring in Slovenia, France, United Kingdom, and Finland are presented.

Forest Monitoring

Author : Stephan Raspe
ISBN : 9780128055304
Genre : Nature
File Size : 39. 93 MB
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Meteorological variables affect composition, structure, growth, health, and dynamics of forest ecosystems. The measurement of meteorological data at forest monitoring plots is essential for the interpretation of climate change effects. Within an ecological monitoring network, standard meteorological variables such as precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind velocity, and direction should be measured. These variables are essential for the calculation of total deposition of air pollutants, for the interpretation of biological processes or for the derivation of water budgets and percolation from the rooting zone. Additional variables of interest are soil temperature, stand precipitation, and soil moisture. The magnitude and changes in time of the meteorological variables can be assessed as explanatory factors for other observations made in forest ecological monitoring. A detailed description of different methods is given. As an example for an integrated analysis, the application of meteorological data in water budget modeling is described and results of a pilot study are shown.

World Reference Base For Soil Resources 2006

Author :
ISBN : 9251055114
Genre : Nature
File Size : 32. 8 MB
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This publication is a revised and updated version of World Soil Resources Reports No. 84, a technical manual for soil scientists and correlators, designed to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to soil resources, their use and management. The document provides a framework for international soil classification and an agreed common scientific language to enhance communication across disciplines using soil information. It contains definitions and diagnostic criteria to recognize soil horizons, properties and materials and gives rules and guidelines for classifying and subdividing soil reference groups. Published also in Spanish and Arabic.

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