forensic dna applications an interdisciplinary perspective

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Forensic Dna Applications

Author : Dragan Primorac
ISBN : 9781466580237
Genre : Law
File Size : 72. 29 MB
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome–based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains—including in mass disaster settings. It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.

The Science Of Roman History

Author : Walter Scheidel
ISBN : 9781400889730
Genre : History
File Size : 60. 95 MB
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How the latest cutting-edge science offers a fuller picture of life in Rome and antiquity This groundbreaking book provides the first comprehensive look at how the latest advances in the sciences are transforming our understanding of ancient Roman history. Walter Scheidel brings together leading historians, anthropologists, and geneticists at the cutting edge of their fields, who explore novel types of evidence that enable us to reconstruct the realities of life in the Roman world. Contributors discuss climate change and its impact on Roman history, and then cover botanical and animal remains, which cast new light on agricultural and dietary practices. They exploit the rich record of human skeletal material--both bones and teeth—which forms a bio-archive that has preserved vital information about health, nutritional status, diet, disease, working conditions, and migration. Complementing this discussion is an in-depth analysis of trends in human body height, a marker of general well-being. This book also assesses the contribution of genetics to our understanding of the past, demonstrating how ancient DNA is used to track infectious diseases, migration, and the spread of livestock and crops, while the DNA of modern populations helps us reconstruct ancient migrations, especially colonization. Opening a path toward a genuine biohistory of Rome and the wider ancient world, The Science of RomanHistory offers an accessible introduction to the scientific methods being used in this exciting new area of research, as well as an up-to-date survey of recent findings and a tantalizing glimpse of what the future holds.

Advances In Forensic Taphonomy

Author : William D. Haglund
ISBN : 1420058355
Genre : Law
File Size : 77. 77 MB
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The taphonomic approach within paleontology, archaeology, and paleoanthropology continues to produce advances in understanding postmortem biochemical and morphological transformations. Conversely, advances in understanding the early and intermediate postmortem period generated in the forensic realm can and should be brought to the attention of scientists who study the historic and prehistoric past. Building on the success of Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives presents new and updated techniques. It expands the taphonomic focus on biogeographic context and microenvironments and integrates further the theoretical and methodological links with archaeology and paleontology. Topics covered include: Microenvironmental variation and decomposition in different environments Taphonomic interpretation of water deaths Mass graves, mass fatalities and war crimes, archaeological and forensic approaches Updates in geochemical and entomological analysis Interpretation of burned human remains Discrimination of trauma from postmortem change Taphonomic applications at the scene and in the lab This comprehensive text takes an interdisciplinary and international approach to understanding taphonomic modifications. Liberally illustrated with photographs, maps, and other images, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives is a valuable source of information for postmortem death investigation.

Using Forensic Dna Evidence At Trial

Author : Jane Moira Taupin
ISBN : 9781482255829
Genre : Law
File Size : 37. 22 MB
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Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial: A Case Study Approach covers the most common DNA analysis methods used in criminal trials today, including STR techniques, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-STRs. It presents some novel techniques—including familial testing and analyzing domestic animal hair—that have been recently introduced in unique cases, each of which is outlined in detail. It also illustrates special issues related to forensic DNA evidence by using court proceedings such as trials and appeals, commissions of inquiry, and government and laboratory reviews. With forensic DNA analysis becoming increasingly important at trial, the lively and sometimes bizarre cases presented in this book have been carefully chosen to highlight specific concepts, methods, and interpretations used in DNA analysis. Sections throughout examine the nature of expertise with a special focus on the role of subjectivity in the interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, emphasizing cognitive bias and extraneous context. Using both convictions and exonerations as examples, the book also discusses the strengths and limitations of DNA evidence and testing. The book is written in an accessible manner for the non-scientific reader, such that criminal lawyers, judges, and forensic experts will all understand the nature of analysis and application of DNA evidence in a variety of court cases. Extensive references—including notable trial proceedings, cross references of cases, and specific forensic statistics—round out the book and help to provide a complete understanding of forensic DNA analysis and its current usage in the courtroom.

Forensic Dna Evidence Interpretation

Author : Christopher M. Triggs
ISBN : 9781420037920
Genre : Law
File Size : 78. 43 MB
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Forensic DNA Evidence Interpretation is the most comprehensive resource for DNA casework available today. Written by leaders in the fields of biology and statistics, the book emphasizes the interpretation of test results and provides the necessary formulae in an easily accessible manner. The book begins by reviewing all pertinent biology, and then provides information on every aspect of DNA analysis, including modern interpretation methods and issues, and contemporary population genetic models available for estimating DNA frequencies or likelihood ratios. Following a chapter on procedures for validating databases, the text presents overviews and performance assessments of both modern sampling uncertainty methods and current paternity testing techniques. Later chapters discuss the latest methods for mixture analysis, LCN (ultra trace) analysis, and non-autosomal (mito, X, and Y) DNA analysis. The text concludes with procedures for disaster victim identification and information on DNA intelligence databases. Supported by numerous tables and over 800 references, this authoritative book provides a link among the biological, forensic, and interpretative domains of the DNA profiling field. It is a valuable resource that allows forensic scientists and technicians, molecular biologists, and attorneys to use forensic DNA evidence to its greatest potential.

Intelligence Genes And Success

Author : Bernie Devlin
ISBN : 9781461206699
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 76. 88 MB
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A scientific response to the best-selling The Bell Curve which set off a hailstorm of controversy upon its publication in 1994. Much of the public reaction to the book was polemic and failed to analyse the details of the science and validity of the statistical arguments underlying the books conclusion. Here, at last, social scientists and statisticians reply to The Bell Curve and its conclusions about IQ, genetics and social outcomes.

Strengthening Forensic Science In The United States

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309142397
Genre : Law
File Size : 21. 2 MB
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

The Routledge International Handbook Of Forensic Intelligence And Criminology

Author : Quentin Rossy
ISBN : 9781134889020
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70. 18 MB
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Despite a shared focus on crime and its ‘extended family’, forensic scientists and criminologists tend to work in isolation rather than sharing the data, methods and knowledge that will broaden the understanding of the criminal phenomenon and its related subjects. Bringing together perspectives from international experts, this book explores the intersection between criminology and forensic science and considers how knowledge from both fields can contribute to a better understanding of crime and offer new directions in theory and methodology. This handbook is divided into three parts: Part I explores the epistemological and historical components of criminology and forensic science, focusing on their scientific and social origins. Part II considers how collaboration between these disciplines can bring about a better understanding of the organizations and institutions that react to crime, including the court, intelligence, prevention, crime scene investigation and policing. Part III discusses the phenomena and actors that produce crime, including a reflection on the methodological issues, challenges and rewards regarding the sharing of these two disciplines. The objective of this handbook is to stimulate a ‘new’ interdisciplinary take on the study of crime, to show how both forensic and criminological theories and knowledge can be combined to analyse crime problems and to open new methodological perspectives. It will be essential reading for students and researchers engaged with forensic science, criminology, criminal behaviour, criminal investigation, crime analysis and criminal justice.

Gene Cloning And Dna Analysis

Author : T. A. Brown
ISBN : 9781119072546
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 68 MB
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Known world-wide as the standard introductory text to this important and exciting area, the seventh edition of Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis addresses new and growing areas of research whilst retaining the philosophy of the previous editions. Assuming the reader has little prior knowledge of the subject, its importance, the principles of the techniques used and their applications are all carefully laid out, with over 250 clearly presented four-colour illustrations. In addition to a number of informative changes to the text throughout the book, the chapters on DNA sequencing and genome studies have been rewritten to reflect the continuing rapid developments in this area of DNA analysis: In depth description of the next generation sequencing methods and descriptions of their applications in studying genomes and transcriptomes New material on the use of ChiP-seq to locate protein-binding sites Extended coverage of the strategies used to assemble genome sequences Description of how the Neanderthal genome has been sequenced and what that sequence tells us about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis remains an essential introductory text to a wide range of biological sciences students; including genetics and genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and applied biology. It is also a perfect introductory text for any professional needing to learn the basics of the subject. All libraries in universities where medical, life and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies available on their shelves.

Materials Science Of Dna

Author : Jung-II Jin
ISBN : 9781439827420
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90. 63 MB
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The field of materials science and technology has undergone revolutionary advances due to the development of novel analytical tools, functional materials, and multidisciplinary approaches to engineering. Additionally, theoretical predictions combined with increasingly improved models and computational capabilities are making impressive contributions to the progress of materials science and technology. In particular, the materials science of DNA has emerged as a vital area of research and is expected to immensely broaden the horizon of material science and nanotechnology in this century. Materials Science of DNA highlights the most important subjects and perspectives in the field, with the aim of stimulating the interdisciplinary community and bringing this intensively interesting, emerging field of molecular-scale materials science to maturation. The editors have not only been involved in the research of materials science of DNA for the past decade, but also lead the series of International Biotronics Workshops supported by the US Air Force Research Laboratory. Biotechnology and DNA-based biopolymers are not only applicable for genomic sequencing and clinical diagnosis and treatment, but can also have a major impact on nonbiotech applications—such as electronics and photonics— opening up a whole new field for bioengineering. New concepts and insights gained from DNA research are expected to prove genuinely useful in a variety of devices in nano, micro, and macro dimensions in the future. Where silicon has been the building block of inorganic electronics and photonics, DNA holds promise to become the building block for organic electronics and photonics.

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