extractive metallurgy of rare earths second edition

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Extractive Metallurgy Of Rare Earths Second Edition

Author : Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy
ISBN : 9781466576384
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 77 MB
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New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths determination and analyses of components and impurities in rare earth materials Information extensively linked to primary literature with a complete listing of references A narration of the changing scenario of world rare earth resources and possibility of their exploitation An indispensable resource, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition explains the many aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy clearly and systematically. The text reveals process implementation possibilities and research opportunities, and considers potential solutions to the challenges impacting this rapidly changing industry.

Extractive Metallurgy Of Copper

Author : A.K. Biswas
ISBN : 9781483287850
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49. 74 MB
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A completely revised and up-to-date edition containing comprehensive industrial data. The many significant changes which occurred during the 1980s and 1990s are chronicled. Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The volume targets the recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap as an increasingly important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality control is also discussed and the book incorporates an important section on extraction economics. Each chapter is followed by a summary of concepts previously described and offers suggested further reading and references.

Rare Earths

Author : Jacques Lucas
ISBN : 9780444627445
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 42 MB
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High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Extractive Metallurgy Of Copper

Author : Mark E. Schlesinger
ISBN : 9780080967899
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 78 MB
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Rev. ed. of: Extractive metallurgy of copper / A.K. Biswas and W.G. Davenport. 1994. 3rd ed.

Extractive Metallurgy Of Nickel Cobalt And Platinum Group Metals

Author : Frank Kenneth Crundwell
ISBN : 9780080968094
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 95 MB
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This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes. Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts - with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage. The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author's previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore - e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science. Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plants Discusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one book Reviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic ore Industrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources

Extractive Metallurgy Of Cobalt

Author : Roger Rumbu
ISBN : 9781387680894
Genre :
File Size : 85. 55 MB
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Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

Author : Matt King
ISBN : 9780080982267
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 51 MB
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By some measure the most widely produced chemical in the world today, sulfuric acid has an extraordinary range of modern uses, including phosphate fertilizer production, explosives, glue, wood preservative and lead-acid batteries. An exceptionally corrosive and dangerous acid, production of sulfuric acid requires stringent adherence to environmental regulatory guidance within cost-efficient standards of production. This work provides an experience-based review of how sulfuric acid plants work, how they should be designed and how they should be operated for maximum sulfur capture and minimum environmental impact. Using a combination of practical experience and deep physical analysis, Davenport and King review sulfur manufacturing in the contemporary world where regulatory guidance is becoming ever tighter (and where new processes are being required to meet them), and where water consumption and energy considerations are being brought to bear on sulfuric acid plant operations. This 2e will examine in particular newly developed acid-making processes and new methods of minimizing unwanted sulfur emissions. The target readers are recently graduated science and engineering students who are entering the chemical industry and experienced professionals within chemical plant design companies, chemical plant production companies, sulfuric acid recycling companies and sulfuric acid users. They will use the book to design, control, optimize and operate sulfuric acid plants around the world. Unique mathematical analysis of sulfuric acid manufacturing processes, providing a sound basis for optimizing sulfuric acid manufacturing processes Analysis of recently developed sulfuric acid manufacturing techniques suggests advantages and disadvantages of the new processes from the energy and environmental points of view Analysis of tail gas sulfur capture processes indicates the best way to combine sulfuric acid making and tailgas sulfur-capture processes from the energy and environmental points of view Draws on industrial connections of the authors through years of hands-on experience in sulfuric acid manufacture

The Rare Earth Elements

Author : J.H.L. Voncken
ISBN : 9783319268095
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 54 MB
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This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

China And The Geopolitics Of Rare Earths

Author : Sophia Kalantzakos
ISBN : 9780190670948
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 25. 14 MB
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Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies-everything from iPhones and medical technologies to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines. While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply. Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" curtailed exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tension between the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies. In this book, Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of economic statecraft, and must be regarded as a part of the larger discourse of global power relations. Importantly, she also argues that the failure of political actors in major industrial nations to enact comprehensive and effective policy solutions, or the scientific and business communities to devise sustainable rare earth production outside of China, points to future resource competition. Focusing on China's monopoly over the rare earth industry, China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths examines the impacts of growing worldwide resource competition and the complexities policymakers face as they develop strategies and responses in an increasingly globalized world.

Handbook On Rare Earth Metals And Alloys Properties Extraction Preparation And Applications

Author : NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
ISBN : 9788178331201
Genre :
File Size : 37. 55 MB
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Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

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