eu law and obesity prevention european monographs series

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Eu Law And Obesity Prevention

Author : Amandine Garde
ISBN : 9789041127068
Genre : Law
File Size : 24. 38 MB
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Since the 1980s, there has been an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity in virtually every country in the world. As obesity is known to lead to both chronic and severe medical problems, it imposes a cost not only on affected individuals and their families, but also on society as a whole. In Europe, the Obesity Prevention White Paper of May 2007 - followed by the adoption of an EU School Fruit Scheme, the acknowledgement that food advertising to children should be limited, and proposed legislation to make nutrition labeling compulsory - has firmly placed obesity on the EU agenda by laying down a multi-sectoral strategy and a basis for future action. In accordance with this growing sense of urgency, this is the first book to offer an in-depth legal analysis of obesity prevention, with particular reference to Europe. It describes what the EU has done and could do to support Member States in fighting the obesity epidemic, and clearly shows the way to locating advocacy strategies within the framework of EU law. The thorough analysis includes a discussion of the following issues: the need to address nutrition and physical activity as important health determinants; the emphasis traditionally placed at EU level on food safety rather than food quality; the need for the development of databases on nutrition and physical activity, comparable common indicators and risk assessment mechanisms; mainstreaming public health into all EU policies; the scope of EU powers in the case law of the Court of Justice; the role of information in the EU's obesity prevention strategy; the Commission's proposed Mandatory Nutrition Declaration; the Food Claims Regulation; the regulation of food marketing to children, and in particular the role of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and industry self-regulation; food reformulation; the use of economic instruments in the EU's obesity prevention strategy, with an emphasis on the Common Agricultural Policy and the EU's taxation policy; and EU action in the fields of sport, occupational health and safety, and transport policy. The author convincingly shows that conflicts of interest inherent in market forces demand a strong EU intervention, preferably through legislation than self-regulation. She also demonstrates the urgent need to reach an agreement, on the basis of reliable data, about what is effective in practice to improve lifestyles. The study acknowledges that the law is not a panacea, but nonetheless has an influential role to play in making the healthy choice an easier choice, and must move decisively towards ensuring that the societal costs associated with obesity are sustainable, and that the ultimate goal of a healthy population is achievable. The book is essential reading for everyone involved or interested in the development of the EU's obesity prevention policy.

Eu Law Of The Overseas

Author : Dimitry Kochenov
ISBN : 9789041134455
Genre : Law
File Size : 71. 28 MB
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Millions of British, Dutch, French, Danish, Spanish, and Portuguese nationals permanently reside in the overseas parts of their Member States. These people, like the companies registered in such territories, often find it virtually impossible to determine what law applies when legal decisions are required. Although Article 52(1) of the EU Treaty clearly states that EU law applies in the territory of all the Member States, most Member State territories lying outside of Europe provide examples of legal arrangements deviating from this rule. This book, for the first time in English, gathers these deviations into a complex system of rules that the editor calls the 'EU law of the Overseas'. Member States' territories lying far away from the European continent either do not fall within the scope of EU law entirely, or are subject to EU law with serious derogations. A huge gap thus exists between the application of EU law in Europe and in the overseas parts of the Member States, which has not been explored in the English language literature until now. This collection of essays sets out to correct this by examining the principles of Union law applicable to such territories, placing them in the general context of the development of European integration. Among the key legal issues discussed are the following: internal market outside of Europe; the protection of minority cultures; EU citizenship in the overseas countries and territories of the EU; Article 349 TFEU as a source of derogations; The implications of Part IV TFEU for the overseas acquis; participatory methods of reappraisal of the relationship between the EU and the overseas; implications for the formation of strategic alliances; voting in European elections; what matters may be referred by courts and tribunals in overseas countries and territories; application of the acquis to the parts of the Member States not controlled by the government or excluded from ratione loci of EU law; interplay of the Treaty provisions and secondary legislation in the overseas; customs union; wholly internal situations; free movement of capital and direct investments in companies; the euro area outside of Europe; duty of loyal cooperation in the domain of EU external action; territorial application of EU criminal law; and territorial application of human rights treaties. Twenty-two leading experts bring their well-informed perspectives to this under-researched but important subject in which, although rules abound and every opportunity to introduce clarity into the picture seems to be present, the situation is far from clear. The book will be welcomed by serious scholars of European Union law and by public international lawyers, as well as by policy-makers and legal practitioners.

The Eclipse Of The Legality Principle In The European Union

Author : Sacha Prechal
ISBN : 9789041132628
Genre : Law
File Size : 53. 79 MB
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Legality is a traditional normative concept to regulate the relationship between those in power and those subjected to that power. The principle of legality protects the citizen against the arbitrary use of power, or, more precisely, it demands a legal basis (which itself must be of a certain standard) to legitimize State action. Is legality under siege in Europe? The authors contributing to this provocative and important book answer this question in the affirmative. Twenty-one outstanding European legal scholars expose a spectrum of ways in which the traditional legality principle is under pressure because of the creation of new legal orders, including that of the EU, and the interaction between these new orders and that of the State, combined with such factors as expertise driven governance, difficulties of international organizations to meet their objectives due to a lack of adequate powers, and lack of parliamentary control. The question of whether the main functions of legality - legitimating, attributing and regulating the exercise of public authority - are still fulfilled in the context of the overlapping, interacting, and mutually dependent legal orders of the EU, the ECHR, and the Member States is at the background of all the essays in this volume. Recognizing that legality, if it is to survive, demands rigorous reconsideration of its scope and application, the authors interrogate not only such fundamental democratic issues as who has legitimate power to perform legislative acts and through these to exercise of public power over citizens, but also such urgent European problems as the following: ; the use of the precautionary principle in EU decision-making; the scope of the principle that the exercise of public authority must rest on an act of Parliament; the extent to which the EU can provide a legal basis for action of Member State authorities in the absence of such a basis within Member State legal orders; the constitutional position of independent 'regulators'; the requirements that ECJ and ECHR case law impose on the exercise of public authority; whether legislative results are coherent in the sensitive area of equal treatment; transparency, legal certainty, enforceability, and implementation of EC Directives in the field of workers' involvement; new instruments as the Open Method of Coordination and the involvement of social partners in decision-making; the de facto harmonization of national criminal justice systems; and the prominent role of the EU in the field of data protection. There can be little doubt that the issue of legality and to whom it applies - in a world in which the role of the modern State is changing profoundly - is a crucial one. It is highly important in the context of the ongoing discussion on the meaning of democracy and citizenship. This volume, with its clear message that reconsidering legality demands taking serious issue with the uncertainty engendered by the processes of globalization, will resonate profoundly among practitioners and policymakers in this time of momentous change.

Eu Higher Education Law

Author : Sacha Garben
ISBN : 9789041133656
Genre : Law
File Size : 53. 4 MB
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In March 2010, the European Higher Education Area was officially launched, proclaiming the culmination of a ten-year timeframe projected at Bologna in 1999, when the education ministers of 29 European states signed a declaration that would fundamentally influence the future of their higher education systems. Forty-seven countries, including all EU Member States and other countries as far afield as Kazakhstan, now take part in the so-called 'Bologna Process'. Remarkably, this vast enterprise, which has led to rapid and sweeping changes in almost all higher education systems in Europe, has taken place outside the framework of the European Union and the Council of Europe. In fact, as this important legal analysis shows, it appears that with the Bologna Process the Member States have tried to sidestep the EU's growing influence on higher education. Although the Bologna Process has generated an impressive literature addressing what it might mean, where it suddenly came from, and how it has become so powerful, until now the legal implications of the process, and its tense relationship with EU law, have been left almost entirely unexamined. This work fills that gap. Among the often controversial issues raised are the following: ; avoidance of the democratically legitimate procedures of the EU's institutional framework for cultural reasons connected with state sovereignty; the scope of EU legal competence for various kinds of activities in the educational sector; specific areas of overlap between EU law and the Bologna Process and their implications; voluntary intergovernmental cooperation as a paradigmatic global shift of internationalization policies in education; the idea that the university is being redefined, from a social institution to an industry; the increasingly influential role in the process, by means of funding and coordination, of the European Commission; financial support programmes and devices to enhance credit and degree recognition; students as recipients of services; and teachers and the free movement of workers. The author describes how the scope of the Bologna Process was significantly broadened during a series of meetings during the decade, analyses the relevance of the case law of the European Court of Justice and provides a detailed description of the adoption of the process into the national laws of France, Germany and the United Kingdom. A concluding normative assessment scrutinizes the process on the basis of democracy, transparency and accountability. As the first study of the legitimacy of Bologna from a European law perspective - and by extension of the 'Europeanization' of higher education, including the role of the EU, EU law, and law in general - this is a critically important contribution to a contentious debate that clearly holds great significance for the future of law and society. Educators and education policymakers are sure to read and study it with interest.

Childhood Obesity

Author : Kristin Voigt
ISBN : 9780199362622
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 86 MB
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Childhood obesity has become a central concern in many countries and a range of policies have been implemented or proposed to address it. This co-authored book is the first to focus on the ethical and policy questions raised by childhood obesity and its prevention. Throughout the book, authors Kristin Voigt, Stuart G. Nicholls, and Garrath Williams emphasize that childhood obesity is a multi-faceted phenomenon, and just one of many issues that parents, schools and societies face. They argue that it is important to acknowledge the resulting complexities and not to think in terms "single-issue" policies. After first reviewing some of the factual uncertainties about childhood obesity, the authors explore central ethical questions. What priority should be given to preventing obesity? To what extent are parents responsible? How should we think about questions of stigma and inequality? In the second part of the book, the authors consider key policy issues, including the concept of the 'obesogenic environment,' debates about taxation and marketing, and the role that schools can play in obesity prevention. The authors argue that political debate is needed to decide the importance given to childhood obesity and how to divide responsibilities for action. These debates have no simple answers. Nonetheless, the authors argue that there are reasons for hope. There are a wide range of opportunities for action. Many of these options also promise wider social benefits.

Obesity Epidemiology

Author : David Crawford
ISBN : 9780199571512
Genre : Medical
File Size : 36. 82 MB
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Rev. ed. of: Obesity prevention and public health / edited by David Crawford and Robert W. Jeffery. 2005.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Social Science Of Obesity

Author : John Cawley
ISBN : 9780199876174
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80. 5 MB
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There is an urgent need to better understand the causes and consequences of obesity, and to learn what works to prevent or reduce obesity. This volume accurately and conveniently summarizes the findings and insights of obesity-related research from the full range of social sciences including anthropology, economics, government, psychology, and sociology. It is an excellent resource for researchers in these areas, both bringing them up to date on the relevant research in their own discipline and allowing them to quickly and easily understand the cutting-edge research being produced in other disciplines. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Obesity is a critical reference for obesity researchers and is also valuable for public health officials, policymakers, nutritionists, and medical practitioners. The first section of the book explains how each social science discipline models human behavior (in particular, diet and physical activity), and summarizes the major research literatures on obesity in that discipline. The second section provides important practical information for researchers, including a guide to publicly available social science data on obesity and an overview of the challenges to causal inference in obesity research. The third part of the book synthesizes social science research on specific causes and correlates of obesity, such as food advertising, food prices, and peers. The fourth section summarizes social science research on the consequences of obesity, such as lower wages, job absenteeism, and discrimination. The fifth and final section reviews the social science literature on obesity treatment and prevention, such as food taxes, school-based interventions, and medical treatments such as anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery.

Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309210287
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 10 MB
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Childhood obesity is a serious health problem that has adverse and long-lasting consequences for individuals, families, and communities. The magnitude of the problem has increased dramatically during the last three decades and, despite some indications of a plateau in this growth, the numbers remain stubbornly high. Efforts to prevent childhood obesity to date have focused largely on school-aged children, with relatively little attention to children under age 5. However, there is a growing awareness that efforts to prevent childhood obesity must begin before children ever enter the school system. Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies reviews factors related to overweight and obese children from birth to age 5, with a focus on nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and recommends policies that can alter children's environments to promote the maintenance of healthy weight. Because the first years of life are important to health and well-being throughout the life span, preventing obesity in infants and young children can contribute to reversing the epidemic of obesity in children and adults. The book recommends that health care providers make parents aware of their child's excess weight early. It also suggests that parents and child care providers keep children active throughout the day, provide them with healthy diets, limit screen time, and ensure children get adequate sleep. In addition to providing comprehensive solutions to tackle the problem of obesity in infants and young children, Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies identifies potential actions that could be taken to implement those recommendations. The recommendations can inform the decisions of state and local child care regulators, child care providers, health care providers, directors of federal and local child care and nutrition programs, and government officials at all levels.

Childhood Obesity Prevention

Author : Jennifer A. O'Dea
ISBN : 9780199572915
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 69 MB
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Childhood obesity is an international public health concern, with a high profile in both the media and government policy. Controversial issues in the prevention of childhood obesity need to be considered early in the development of school, clinical or community prevention programs, as these issues are often the ones that promote the success or failure of attempts to ameliorate the problem at hand. This book combines health education theory, research, and practice to guide researchers, students, educators, community health workers and practitioners in the prevention of childhood obesity and the promotion of child and adolescent health and well-being. It examines controversy in childhood obesity, including the link with poverty and the difficulty of addressing obesity whilst also tackling the issue of eating disorders. The prevalence of childhood obesity is covered, with international chapters examining the importance of factors such as social class and ethnic differences, and global and local trends are identified. Approaches to prevention are presented, and the book concludes with the successful outcome of various interventions, demonstrating how the whole school community can collaborate to promote health among young people. Click here to view the foreword by Sir Michael Marmot

Childlessness In Europe Contexts Causes And Consequences

Author : Michaela Kreyenfeld
ISBN : 9783319446677
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 37. 32 MB
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This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This open access book provides an overview of childlessness throughout Europe. It offers a collection of papers written by leading demographers and sociologists that examine contexts, causes, and consequences of childlessness in countries throughout the region.The book features data from all over Europe. It specifically highlights patterns of childlessness in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland. An additional chapter on childlessness in the United States puts the European experience in perspective. The book offers readers such insights as the determinants of lifelong childlessness, whether governments can and should counteract increasing childlessness, how the phenomenon differs across social strata and the role economic uncertainties play. In addition, the book also examines life course dynamics and biographical patterns, assisted reproduction as well as the consequences of childlessness. Childlessness has been increasing rapidly in most European countries in recent decades. This book offers readers expert analysis into this issue from leading experts in the field of family behavior. From causes to consequences, it explores the many facets of childlessness throughout Europe to present a comprehensive portrait of this important demographic and sociological trend.

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