english kinyarwanda dictionary kinyarwanda english kinyarwanda edition

Download Book English Kinyarwanda Dictionary Kinyarwanda English Kinyarwanda Edition in PDF format. You can Read Online English Kinyarwanda Dictionary Kinyarwanda English Kinyarwanda Edition here in PDF, EPUB, Mobi or Docx formats.

Dictionaries An International Encyclopedia Of Lexicography

Author : Rufus Gouws
ISBN : 9783110238136
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 22. 71 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 169
Read : 1042

Download Now


The basis for this additional volume are the three volumes of the handbooks Dictionaries. An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography (HSK 5.1–5.3), published between 1989 and 1991. An updating has been perceived as an important desideratum for a considerable time. In the present Supplementary Volume the premises and subjects of HSK 5.1–5.3 are complemented by new articles that take account of the practice-internal and theoretical developments of the last 15 years. Special attention has been given to the following topics: the status and function of lexicographic reference works, the history of lexicography, the theory of lexicography, lexicographic processes, lexicographic training and lexicographic institutions, new metalexicographic methods, electronic and, especially, computer-assisted lexicography.

Training For Model Citizenship

Author : Molly Sundberg
ISBN : 9781137584229
Genre : Education
File Size : 50. 77 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 302
Read : 1134

Download Now


This book explores the state in post-genocide Rwanda through an ethnography of a state-run civic education program and everyday forms of government. In 2007, the Rwandan government introduced a nationwide civic education program, called Itorero, to teach all inhabitants about its vision of the model Rwandan citizen. Since then, this ideal has been pursued through remote training camps, village assemblies, and daily government practices. Based on ethnographic research of the life and workings of Itorero camps and the day-to-day administration of a local neighborhood in Kigali, this book investigates how such a pursuit has come to affect Rwandans’ relation to the state and what it may tell us about modern forms of authoritarian rule.

Servant Leadership

Author : Samuel O. Enyia
ISBN : 9781641387569
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 80. 63 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 607
Read : 400

Download Now


The focus of this book is on how applying the principles, practices, strategies, and strengths of servant leadership can help leaders revolutionize their leadership culture and practices to maximize performance outcomes, whose core strength is in serving others first. It prepares and equips leaders—whether at the corporate, educational, church, community, NGOs, private, public, and family context—with the complete understanding of the spectrum of the model and to show why it is a viable leadership alternative, more efficient and effective leadership model because it’s humane, value-based, moral, and relationship-driven, which yields the best outcome for the organization, employees, and followers, who are empowered, valued, and respected for their gifts, expertise, and abilities. How to incorporate this revolutionary and empowering values-based servant leadership-followership strategies to prepare and equip leaders and followers to become more efficient, effective, and successful stands at the core of this book.

English Kinyarwanda Dictionary

Author :
ISBN : 3952364363
Genre : Kinyarwanda language
File Size : 82. 44 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 509
Read : 984

Download Now



Kinyarwanda And Kirundi Comparative Grammar

Author : R. David Paul Zorc
ISBN : 1931546320
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 34. 63 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 925
Read : 1072

Download Now



The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language 3rd Edition Anne H Soukhanov

Author : Anne H. Soukhanov
ISBN :
Genre : Young Adult Nonfiction
File Size : 45. 62 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 276
Read : 1164

Download Now


A lmost a quarter of a century ago a new dictionary bearing the name American Heritage appeared. That book was notable because it did four things and it did them well. It faithfully recorded the language in easily understood definitions. It provided guidance toward accuracy, precision, and grace in the use of English that intelligent people need and seek in a dictionary. It traced, whenever possible, the development of English words to their origins and keyed many to an Appendix of Indo-European Roots. And it presented complex lexical data in a typographically attractive design accented by thousands of photographs and line drawings in spacious margins. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , builds upon this distinguished, innovative foundation. The pages of the Third Edition, a lexicon of more than 200,000 boldface forms, hundreds of thousands of meanings, and nearly 4,000 pieces of art, reflect the rich and varied texture of American English as it has been used over time by a broad group of educated speakers. This Dictionary is the product of four years of work by 175 contributors. In preparing the Dictionary, our editors have had access to a database containing hundreds of millions of lines of text that could be searched for any word in context. The A-Z vocabulary, containing more than 16,000 words and meanings new to this Edition, is a comprehensive, detailed record of the language. Use of citations allowed the editors to identify new words and new meanings, identify levels of usage, and select more than 4,000 quoted illustrations from nearly 2,000 sources for use in exemplifying entry words in printed context. The quoted illustrations range from the works of Shakespeare, Pope, and Ruskin to the works of contemporary writers such as Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion, John Updike, and Tom Wicker. More than 30,000 nonquoted illustrative examples were also derived from study of the citations. Finally, the citations were used to determine the status of variants. For example, 4,000 electronic citations were accrued for the spelling ambiance and about 2,000 were found for the variant ambience . On the basis of this 2:1 ratio the Dictionary gives ambience as an "unequal," or less frequently occurring, variant of the entry word ambiance . If language is a reflection of the ethos of the generation speaking it, then the new entries and meanings in this Edition have much to say about us and our time. The great majority of the new words relate to social and life patterns; to the life sciences with an emphasis on health, medicine, genetics, and ecology; and to the physical sciences with an emphasis on computer technology and electronics, physics, and astronomy. The goal of the Third Edition is to provide the user with comprehension and appreciation of the language in a readable manner. Keeping the needs of the contemporary user in mind, we have presented the central and often the most frequently sought meaning of a word first. The definitions are worded in concise, lucid prose without the specialized terms and abbreviations that make most dictionaries forbidding and confusing. The Third Edition contains more than 500 notes and comments on matters of grammar, diction, pronunciation, and levels and nuances of usage. Citations were used in identifying new and evolving usage problems, attesting and evaluating the currency of certain usages, studying various levels of usage, and evaluating their sociolinguistic implications. The 173-member Usage Panel, with 75 new members and chaired by Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist associated with Stanford University, has made an important contribution to the content and direction of the Usage Notes through responses to periodic surveys developed by the Chair and the editors. The Usage Panel of the Third Edition consists chiefly of writers, editors, and scholars, 22 of whom are professors of linguistics or English. Other Panelists occupy distinguished positions in law, diplomacy, government, business, science and technology, medicine, and the arts. Eighteen are recipients of the Pulitzer Prize and one is a Nobel Laureate. These men and women, who reside in 28 states across the land and in Canada and England, are a cross section of today's critical, literary, and scholarly community. A list of usage issues—old and new—was prepared by the Chair and the editors, and from it the usage program for the Third Edition was developed. Some of the usage issues are entirely new. An example is the Note at world-class . Other issues discussed in previous editions were resurveyed. An example is the use of contact as a verb. In some instances the Panel's views are more conservative than in the past: only 27 percent of the current Panel accepts hopefully as a sentence adverb, a usage that in 1969 was acceptable to 44 percent of the Panel. Other Notes, such as the one that discusses the use of above as a noun, present guidance and linguistic analysis without Panel opinions. The Usage Notes are not confined solely to matters of stylistic excellence. Our concern with usage extends to issues of gender, ethnicity, and sexual preference. Considerable attention is devoted in this Edition to the history of words. The etymologies have been thoroughly revised and expanded by a group of 25 specialists whose work reflects original scholarly research in many fields, including African, Persian, Turkish, and Native American languages. Special symbols, abbreviations, and complex technical vocabulary have been avoided in the etymologies. More than 400 word history paragraphs, most of which contain dates of first occurrence of the words in English, appear at entries with especially interesting etymologies. These word histories, such as the one at nerd , provide a social, historical, and cultural context for the evolution of words and explain the various linguistic processes that contribute to the development of language. A great many Modern English words can be traced to the reconstructed ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European. The etymologies in the Third Edition, like those in the First, trace many words to their earliest ascertainable origins, usually in Proto-Indo-European, by means of cross-references to a new and thoroughly revised Appendix of Indo-European Roots. The Appendix, in a major departure from previous style, gives the root followed by a brief gloss and a list of some of the Modern English words derived from it. The individual roots entry then follows. For example, the Modern English words fierce , and treacle , at first glance strange semantic companions, both derive from the root *ghwer- , "wild." The Third Edition contains hundreds of labeled words and meanings whose occurrence is restricted to certain areas of the United States. An important new feature unique to the Third Edition is the inclusion of more than 100 Regional Notes that explore the various linguistic and historical processes contributing to the development of these terms. These processes are apparent in the Regional Notes at entries such as absquatulate . In an effort to assist the reader in using the language with color, vitality, and freshness, the Third Edition devotes more attention than ever before to synonymy by including more than 900 synonym paragraphs. The fully cross-referenced synonym paragraphs are of two kinds. The first, liberally illustrated with quotations, discriminates shades of meaning. The second kind lists exact synonyms, that is, words sharing a common irreducible element of meaning, and provides antonyms when applicable. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , like the First, is the product of significant advances in the use of computer technology. The Third Edition is derived from a complex, highly versatile structured database. Every element in the Dictionary was parsed, examined, and coded to reflect its lexical function and position within the base. In combination, these elements form dictionary entries, and on a broader scale they reflect a multitude of relationships across the lexicon. Use of the database in connection with electronically generated citations places the Third Edition a generation ahead of other dictionaries. It is no longer possible for a few general editors working strictly within a publishing house to compile a true and accurate record of the language as it is used today. Semantic, etymological, linguistic, and technical complexities inherent in the language require the counsel of specialists from many disciplines. These specialists' names are listed under Special Contributors and Consultants. We wish to thank all of them for helping us in our pursuit of accuracy and truth. Special thanks go to John Simpson, Co-Editor of the New Oxford English Dictionary , for valuable comments made during the early stages of the project. And to all members of the Editorial Staff who gave unstintingly of their time and expended great effort in the development of the Third Edition, we express our deepest gratitude. Anne H.Soukhanov

Annotated Leading Cases Of International Criminal Tribunals The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda 2001 2002

Author : André Klip
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063790419
Genre : Arbitration (International law)
File Size : 75. 87 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 205
Read : 817

Download Now


This 10th volume of Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals contains decisions taken by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in 2003. It includes the most important decisions, identical to the original version, and includes concurring, separate, and dissenting opinions. In the book, distinguished experts in the field of international criminal law have commented on the decisions. (Series: Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals - Vol. 10)

Historical Dictionary Of Rwanda

Author : Aimable Twagilimana
ISBN : 9780810864269
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 29 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 417
Read : 281

Download Now


Blessed with natural beauty and rich vegetation, Rwanda is often called the 'land of a thousand hills' (le pays des mille collines). A proud people, the Banyarwanda (Rwandans) possess a centric view of the world, believing that Imana (God) favors Rwanda, as conveyed through the saying 'Imana yirirwa ahandi igataha i Rwanda' (God spends the day some place else but goes back home to Rwanda to sleep) and the fact that Rwanda means 'the universe.' However, this idyllic view of Rwanda sharply contrasts with the sad history of ethnic strife that has unfolded in the country since the 1950s: the 1959 Hutu Revolution followed by years of anti-Tutsi pogroms, undemocratic regimes, the civil war of 1990-1994, and, more significantly, the April-July 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and Hutu who opposed the killings. This new edition of Historical Dictionary of Rwanda, through its chronology, introductory essays, appendixes, maps, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects, provides an important reference on this central African country.

Wihogora Rwanda

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105113570282
Genre : Rwanda
File Size : 32. 21 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 205
Read : 421

Download Now



Kirundi Children S Dictionary

Author : Ururimi kasahorow
ISBN : 1503182703
Genre :
File Size : 43. 91 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 277
Read : 340

Download Now


Learn more Kirundi language words! The Kirundi Children's Dictionary is an illustrated version of the Kirundi Learner's Dictionary. It is made especially for your multilingual child to develop their Kirundi and English reading skills. Contains simple nouns, verbs and adjectives for every day use. Discover the joy of reading in Kirundi and English together with your multilingual child. Suitable for children 0 to 7 years old.

Top Download:

Best Books