earthquake thermodynamics and phase transformation in the earth s interior international geophysics

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Earthquake Thermodynamics And Phase Transformation In The Earth S Interior

Author : Roman Teisseyre
ISBN : 0080530656
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 44 MB
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A group of distinguished scientists contributes to the foundations of a new discipline in Earth sciences: earthquake thermodynamics and thermodynamics of formation of the Earth's interior structures. The predictive powers of thermodynamics are so great that those aspiring to model earthquake and the Earth's interior will certainly wish to be able to use the theory. Thermodynamics is our only method of understanding and predicting the behavior of many environmental, atmospheric, and geological processes. The need for Earth scientists to develop a functional knowledge of thermodynamic concepts and methodology is therefore urgent. Sources of an entropy increase the dissipative and self-organizing systems driving the evolution and dynamics of the Universe and Earth through irreversible processes. The non-linear interactions lead to the formation of fractal structures. From the structural phase transformations the important interior boundaries emerge. Non-linear interactions between the defects in solids lead the authors to develop the physics of continua with a dense distribution of defects. Disclinations and dislocations interact during a slow evolution as well as during rapid dynamic events, like earthquakes. Splitting the dynamic processes into the 2D fault done and 3D surrounding space brings a new tool for describing the slip nucleation and propagation along the earthquake faults. Seismic efficiency, rupture velocity, and complexity of seismic source zone are considered from different points of view, fracture band earthquake model is developed on the basis of thermodynamics of line defects, like dislocations. Earthquake thermodynamics offers us a microscopic model of earthquake sources. Physics of defects helps the authors decscribe and explain a number of precursory phenomena caused by the buildup of stresses. Anomalies in electric polarization and electromagnetic radiation prior to earthquakes are considered from this point of view. Through the thermodynamic approach, the authors arrive at the fascinating question of posssibility of earthquake prediction. In general, the Earth is considered here as a multicomponent system. Transport phenomena as well as wave propagation and shock waves are considered in this system subjected also to chemical and phase transformations.

Asymmetric Continuum

Author : Roman Teisseyre
ISBN : 9783642318603
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 55 MB
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This book deals with a class of basic deformations in Asymmetric Continuum Theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes. In solids, a separate problem relates to the displacements; their recording, e.g., by means of the seismometers, proves only the existence of the displacement derivatives and not a real displacement. However, the molecular displacements and new fracture criterion including the defect distributions and induced strains are defined in the book too. In fluids, the transport velocities and molecular strains describe the motion processes. The vortex motions are defined by means of the rotational transport; this approach leads to more complicated problems, like the turbulence phenomena. The interaction processes, including the electric and magnetic fields, and some thermodynamical problems and quantum theory analogies help to understand the extreme processes

International Handbook Of Earthquake Engineering Seismology

Author : William H.K. Lee
ISBN : 0080489222
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 24 MB
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Modern scientific investigations of earthquakes began in the 1880s, and the International Association of Seismology was organized in 1901 to promote collaboration of scientists and engineers in studying earthquakes. The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, under the auspices of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI), was prepared by leading experts under a distinguished international advisory board and team of editors. The content is organized into 56 chapters and includes over 430 figures, 24 of which are in color. This large-format, comprehensive reference summarizes well-established facts, reviews relevant theories, surveys useful methods and techniques, and documents and archives basic seismic data. It will be the authoritative reference for scientists and engineers and a quick and handy reference for seismologists. Also available is The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part B. Two CD-ROMs containing additional material packaged with the text

Extreme Environmental Events

Author : Robert A. Meyers
ISBN : 9781441976949
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 56 MB
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Extreme Environmental Events is an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the basic tenets of complexity and systems theory, as well as the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems, to the prediction, monitoring, and evaluation of major natural phenomena affecting life on earth. These phenomena are often highly destructive, and include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, climate change,, and weather. Early warning, damage, and the immediate response of human populations to these phenomena are also covered from the point of view of complexity and nonlinear systems. In 61 authoritative, state-of-the art articles, world experts in each field apply such tools and concepts as fractals, cellular automata, solitons game theory, network theory, and statistical physics to an understanding of these complex geophysical phenomena.

Earthquake Source Asymmetry Structural Media And Rotation Effects

Author : Roman Teisseyre
ISBN : 9783540313373
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 65 MB
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This breakthrough book is the first to examine the rotational effects in earthquakes, a revolutionary concept in seismology. Existing models do no yet explain the significant rotational and twisting motions that occur during an earthquake and cause the failure of structures. The rotation and twist effects are investigated and described, and their consequences for designing tall buildings and other important structures are presented. This book will change the way the world views earthquakes.

Achievements History And Challenges In Geophysics

Author : Robert Bialik
ISBN : 9783319075990
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 92 MB
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Over the last six decades, the field of geophysics has experienced rapid development. Seismic methods, magnetic studies, hydrology and atmospheric sciences have expanded thanks to a boom in the computer sciences and measurement techniques. The frontiers of geophysics have also expanded, now including research on the polar areas, both Arctic and Antarctic. All these events are clearly reflected in the 60-year-long history of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. This volume describes the most prominent achievements, the history of research and also the future potential of the Institute of Geophysics PAS. It describes measurements in various projects, methods of interpreting scientific data, and last but not least the people who have driven this research in many scientific projects.

Constitution Of The Earth S Interior

Author : J. Leliwa-Kopystynski
ISBN : 9781483291857
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 81 MB
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Constitution of the Earth's Interior discusses the physical and evolutionary principles connecting various elements of the knowledge about structure and dynamics of the Earth's interior. This work is divided into eight chapters that primarily focus on the physical, chemical, and petrological state. This text contains general data on a general stationary model, which is described by equations of state combining the basic parameters, including pressure, temperature, density, gravity acceleration, and mineral composition within the Earth's interior. Considerable chapters concern the chemical and petrological composition of the matter in the Earth's interior. The remaining chapters describe models containing inhomogeneities used to illustrate processes connected with phase transitions. This book will be of great value to geologists, physicists, and researchers.

Treatise On Geophysics

Author :
ISBN : 9780444538031
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 75 MB
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Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole

Bibliographic Index

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105025908224
Genre : Bibliographical literature
File Size : 76. 61 MB
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Mineral Physics

Author : G David Price
ISBN : 9780444535764
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 94 MB
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Treatise on Geophysics: Mineral Physics, Volume 2, provides a comprehensive review of the current state of understanding of mineral physics. Each chapter demonstrates the significant progress that has been made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of minerals, and also highlights a number of issues which are still outstanding or that need further work to resolve current contradictions. The book first reviews the current status of our understanding of the nature of the deep Earth. These include the seismic properties of rocks and minerals; problems of the lower mantle and the core-mantle boundary; and the state of knowledge on mantle chemistry and the nature and evolution of the core. The discussions then turn to the theory underlying high-pressure, high-temperature physics, and the major experimental methods being developed to probe this parameter space. The remaining chapters explain the specific techniques for measuring elastic and acoustic properties, electronic and magnetic properties, and rheological properties; the nature and origin of anisotropy in the Earth; the properties of melt; and the magnetic and electrical properties of mantle phases. Self-contained volume starts with an overview of the subject then explores each topic with in depth detail Extensive reference lists and cross references with other volumes to facilitate further research Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding Content suited for both the expert and non-expert

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