earth system science bridging the gaps between disciplines perspectives from a multi disciplinary helmholtz research school springerbriefs in earth system sciences

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Earth System Science Bridging The Gaps Between Disciplines

Author : Gerrit Lohmann
ISBN : 9783642322358
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 7 MB
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Earth system science is traditionally split into various disciplines (Geology, Physics, Meteorology, Oceanography, Biology etc.) and several sub-disciplines. Overall, the diversity of expertise provides a solid base for interdisciplinary research. However, gaining holistic insights into the Earth system requires the integration of observations, paleoclimate data, analysis tools and modeling. These different approaches of Earth system science are rooted in various disciplines that cut across a broad range of timescales. It is, therefore, necessary to link these disciplines at a relatively early stage in PhD programs. The linking of ‘data and modeling’, as it is the special emphasis in our graduate school, enables graduate students from a variety of disciplines to cooperate and exchange views on the common theme of Earth system science, which leads to a better understanding of processes within a global context.

Towards An Interdisciplinary Approach In Earth System Science

Author : Gerrit Lohmann
ISBN : 9783319138657
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 26 MB
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This book describes the latest advances at the Helmholtz “Earth System Science Research School” where scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, the University of Bremen, and the Jacobs University are involved in research. One of the greatest challenges is understanding ongoing environmental changes. The longer the time scale the more components of the Earth system are involved, e.g. interannual and decadal variations are related to the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice system, whereas longer variations like glacial-interglacial or Cenozoic transitions involve the carbon cycle, ice sheets and gateways. In order to get deep insights into Earth system science, observations, remote sensing, past environmental data, as well as modeling need to be integrated. These different approaches are traditionally taught in separated disciplines at bachelor and master levels. It is, therefore, necessary to bring these disciplines together in PhD programs.

Integrated Analysis Of Interglacial Climate Dynamics Interdynamic

Author : Michael Schulz
ISBN : 9783319006932
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 63 MB
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The work addresses the following questions in the context of interglacial climate dynamics: (i) What are the amplitudes of natural climate variations on timescales of several years to millennia? (ii) Do abrupt changes in the large-scale circulation of the Atlantic Ocean occur in interglacials? (iii) Which biogeochemical feedback mechanisms control the natural limits of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols? (iv) Which linkages exist between climate and pre-industrial cultures? The work is based on an integrated approach in paleoclimate research, in which all available paleoclimate archives (terrestrial and marine as well as ice cores) are combined in order to yield a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of global environmental variations. Moreover, through a close linkage be-tween paleoclimate reconstructions and results from Earth-system models detailed insights into the dynamics of climate variations are gained.

Simulating Social Complexity

Author : Bruce Edmonds
ISBN : 9783540938132
Genre : Computers
File Size : 66. 27 MB
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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenomena of interest then result (emerge) from the dynamics of the interaction of social actors in an essential way and are usually not easily simplifiable by, for example, considering only representative actors. The introduction of accessible agent-based modelling allows the representation of social complexity in a more natural and direct manner than previous techniques. In particular, it is no longer necessary to distort a model with the introduction of overly strong assumptions simply in order to obtain analytic tractability. This makes agent-based modelling relatively accessible to a range of scientists. The outcomes of such models can be displayed and animated in ways that also make them more interpretable by experts and stakeholders. This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged. This book will help those entering into the field to avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, but it will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introductory, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section of ‘Further Reading’ briefly describing three to eight items that a newcomer might read next.

Chaos And Complex Systems

Author : Stavros G. Stavrinides
ISBN : 9783642339141
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 52 MB
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Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications. The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysics, and from nonlinear analysis to the history of chaos theory. The corresponding proceedings collected in this volume address a broad spectrum of contemporary topics, including but not limited to networks, circuits, systems, biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, management complexity and global systems.

Introduction To Modern Fortran For The Earth System Sciences

Author : Dragos B. Chirila
ISBN : 9783642370090
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 87 MB
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This work provides a short "getting started" guide to Fortran 90/95. The main target audience consists of newcomers to the field of numerical computation within Earth system sciences (students, researchers or scientific programmers). Furthermore, readers accustomed to other programming languages may also benefit from this work, by discovering how some programming techniques they are familiar with map to Fortran 95. The main goal is to enable readers to quickly start using Fortran 95 for writing useful programs. It also introduces a gradual discussion of Input/Output facilities relevant for Earth system sciences, from the simplest ones to the more advanced netCDF library (which has become a de facto standard for handling the massive datasets used within Earth system sciences). While related works already treat these disciplines separately (each often providing much more information than needed by the beginning practitioner), the reader finds in this book a shorter guide which links them. Compared to other books, this work provides a much more compact view of the language, while also placing the language-elements in a more applied setting, by providing examples related to numerical computing and more advanced Input/Output facilities for Earth system sciences. Naturally, the coverage of the programming language is relatively shallow, since many details are skipped. However, many of these details can be learned gradually by the practitioner, after getting an overview and some practice with the language through this book.

How To Do Science With Models

Author : Axel Gelfert
ISBN : 9783319279541
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78. 11 MB
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.

Urban Vulnerability And Climate Change In Africa

Author : Stephan Pauleit
ISBN : 9783319039824
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 84 MB
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Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; and strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation.

System Earth Via Geodetic Geophysical Space Techniques

Author : Frank M. Flechtner
ISBN : 364210228X
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 64 MB
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Our planet is currently experiencing substantial changes due to natural phen- ena and direct or indirect human interactions. Observations from space are the only means to monitor and quantify these changes on a global and long-term p- spective. Continuous time series of a large set of Earth system parameters are needed in order to better understand the processes causing these changes, as well as their interactions. This knowledge is needed to build comprehensive Earth s- tem models used for analysis and prediction of the changing Earth. Geodesy and geophysics contribute to the understanding of system Earth through the observation of global parameter sets in space and time, such as tectonic motion, Earth surface deformation, sea level changes and gravity, magnetic and atmospheric elds. In the framework of the German geoscience research and development p- gramme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN, research projects related to the theme “Observing the Earth System from Space” have been funded within two consecutive phases since 2002, both covering 3 years. The projects address data analysis and model development using the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and comp- mentary ground or airborne observations. The results of the rst phase projects have been published in the Springer book, titled “Observation of the Earth System from Space”, edited by Flury, Rummel, Reigber, Rothacher, Boedecker and Schreiber in 2006. The present book, titled “System Earth via Geodetic-Geophysical Space Techniques” summarizes in 40 scienti c papers the results of eight coordinated research projects funded in the second phase of this programme (2005–2008).

Data Driven Process Discovery And Analysis

Author : Karl Aberer
ISBN : 9783642340444
Genre : Computers
File Size : 36. 37 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

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