earth system science bridging the gaps between disciplines perspectives from a multi disciplinary helmholtz research school springerbriefs in earth system sciences

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Earth System Science Bridging The Gaps Between Disciplines

Author : Gerrit Lohmann
ISBN : 9783642322358
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 44 MB
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Earth system science is traditionally split into various disciplines (Geology, Physics, Meteorology, Oceanography, Biology etc.) and several sub-disciplines. Overall, the diversity of expertise provides a solid base for interdisciplinary research. However, gaining holistic insights into the Earth system requires the integration of observations, paleoclimate data, analysis tools and modeling. These different approaches of Earth system science are rooted in various disciplines that cut across a broad range of timescales. It is, therefore, necessary to link these disciplines at a relatively early stage in PhD programs. The linking of ‘data and modeling’, as it is the special emphasis in our graduate school, enables graduate students from a variety of disciplines to cooperate and exchange views on the common theme of Earth system science, which leads to a better understanding of processes within a global context.

Towards An Interdisciplinary Approach In Earth System Science

Author : Gerrit Lohmann
ISBN : 9783319138657
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 1 MB
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This book describes the latest advances at the Helmholtz “Earth System Science Research School” where scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, the University of Bremen, and the Jacobs University are involved in research. One of the greatest challenges is understanding ongoing environmental changes. The longer the time scale the more components of the Earth system are involved, e.g. interannual and decadal variations are related to the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice system, whereas longer variations like glacial-interglacial or Cenozoic transitions involve the carbon cycle, ice sheets and gateways. In order to get deep insights into Earth system science, observations, remote sensing, past environmental data, as well as modeling need to be integrated. These different approaches are traditionally taught in separated disciplines at bachelor and master levels. It is, therefore, necessary to bring these disciplines together in PhD programs.

Integrated Analysis Of Interglacial Climate Dynamics Interdynamic

Author : Michael Schulz
ISBN : 9783319006932
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 68 MB
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The work addresses the following questions in the context of interglacial climate dynamics: (i) What are the amplitudes of natural climate variations on timescales of several years to millennia? (ii) Do abrupt changes in the large-scale circulation of the Atlantic Ocean occur in interglacials? (iii) Which biogeochemical feedback mechanisms control the natural limits of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols? (iv) Which linkages exist between climate and pre-industrial cultures? The work is based on an integrated approach in paleoclimate research, in which all available paleoclimate archives (terrestrial and marine as well as ice cores) are combined in order to yield a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of global environmental variations. Moreover, through a close linkage be-tween paleoclimate reconstructions and results from Earth-system models detailed insights into the dynamics of climate variations are gained.

Neural Immune Interactions In Brain Function And Alcohol Related Disorders

Author : Changhai Cui
ISBN : 9781461447290
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64. 93 MB
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Recent studies have provided clear evidence on the role of neural-immune interactions in normal brain function and neuropathological conditions. Neuroimmune factors, which play an essential role in neuroinflammatory response, have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal function and plasticity. Thus, neural-immune interactions provide a new frame work for understanding the role of the neuroimmune system in normal brain function, neurodevelopment, and a variety of neurological disorders. These advances have a far reaching impact on many areas of neuroscience, including alcohol research. Studies using human alcoholic brains, gene knockout mice, and gene expression profiling have established a clear link between alcoholism and an altered neuroimmune profile. This book integrates emerging knowledge on neural-immune interactions with key discoveries in alcohol research and provides a comprehensive overview of neural-immune interactions in brain function and behavior associated with alcohol use disorders. While Neural–Immune Interaction in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders focuses on neural-immune interactions in areas directly related to alcohol use disorders, it is not intended to be all inclusive. Several areas, including sleep disorders, pain, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, are not covered as independent chapters but briefly mentioned in the text. The close relevance of these topics to neural-immune interactions and alcohol use disorders warrants future discussion and more research efforts.

Advanced Techniques In Diagnostic Microbiology

Author : Yi-Wei Tang
ISBN : 9781461439707
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24. 81 MB
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In the United States, hospitals annually report over 5 million cases of infectious-disease-related illnesses: clinical microbiology laboratories in these hospitals are engaged in detecting and identifying the pathogenic microorganisms in clinical specimens collected from these patients with suspected infections. Clearly, the timely and accurate detection/identification of these microbial pathogens is critical for patient treatment decisions and outcomes for millions of patients each year. Despite an appreciation that the outcome of an infectious-disease-related illness is directly related to the time required to detect and identify a microbial pathogen, clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States as well as worldwide have long been hampered by traditional culture-based assays, which may require prolonged incubation time for slowly growing microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, traditional culture-based assays often require multiple steps with additional time needed for discernment of species and/or detection of antimicrobial resistance. Finally, these traditional, slow multistep culture-based assays are labor-intensive and required skilled clinical microbiologists at the bench. Over the past several decades, advanced molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology quietly have been revolutionizing the practice of clinical microbiology in the hospital setting. Indeed, molecular diagnostic testing in general and nucleic-acid-based amplification methods in particular have been heralded as diagnostic tools for the new millennium. There is no question that the development of rapid molecular techniques for nucleic acid amplification/characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software has greatly broadened the diagnostic capabilities of the clinical microbiology laboratory. These technical advances in molecular microbiology over the first decade of the 21st Century have profoundly influenced the physical structure of clinical microbiology laboratories as well as their staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time. These molecular microbiology advances have also resulted in the need for a revised and updated second edition of Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. This second edition again provides an updated and comprehensive description of the ongoing evolution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition, many new chapters have been added, including a chapter on the clinical interpretation and relevance of advanced technique results. The second edition, like the first edition, includes both a “techniques” section describing the latest molecular techniques and an “applications” section describing how these advanced molecular techniques are being used in the clinical setting. Finally, the second edition, like the first edition, utilizes a diverse team of authors who have compiled chapters that provide the reader with comprehensive and useable information on advanced molecular microbiology techniques.

Chaos And Complex Systems

Author : Stavros G. Stavrinides
ISBN : 9783642339141
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 37 MB
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Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications. The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysics, and from nonlinear analysis to the history of chaos theory. The corresponding proceedings collected in this volume address a broad spectrum of contemporary topics, including but not limited to networks, circuits, systems, biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, management complexity and global systems.

Find Me I M Yours

Author : Hillary Carlip
ISBN : 9780795343278
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 44. 64 MB
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"If you believe in destiny like I do, and you think there's even a remote possibility we're meant to be together, then find me I'm yours." —Mr. WTF In one sentence—one serendipitous moment—everything Mags Marclay, an offbeat, wry, 24-year-old struggling artist living in L.A., has ever known is forever changed as she is led on a treasure hunt to find her soul mate. Find Me I’m Yours is a highly entertaining, unconventional virtual page-turner. Become immersed in Mags’s world through original artwork, hand-written lists, graphics, and Instagram photos within the book. You can go even deeper into the Find Me I’m Yours universe by clicking on embedded links leading to interactive content that’s expertly woven through the novel, including: • Original rom-com style VIDEOS that star the handsome stranger Mags dubs “Mr. WTF,” who gives clues to the hunt. • Thirty-three unique, custom-designed WEBSITES that further the narrative, blur the lines between fiction and reality, and offer endless ways for you to enjoy additional original content, including reality and comedy series featuring A-list talent. • OPPORTUNITIES for you to share your own content (artwork, stories, songs, apologies, wishes, etc.), interact, connect, and personally engage with the story. This revolutionary CLICK LIT® novel was conceived from the get-go as an ever-expanding, multi-platform entertainment experience. Created, written, and designed by award-winning author, artist, and digital innovator Hillary Carlip, and co-created, directed, and produced by Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated TV comedy writer/producer/director Maxine Lapiduss, Find Me I’m Yours is a game changer in the way that stories are told and experienced.

Introduction To Modern Fortran For The Earth System Sciences

Author : Dragos B. Chirila
ISBN : 9783642370090
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 85 MB
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This work provides a short "getting started" guide to Fortran 90/95. The main target audience consists of newcomers to the field of numerical computation within Earth system sciences (students, researchers or scientific programmers). Furthermore, readers accustomed to other programming languages may also benefit from this work, by discovering how some programming techniques they are familiar with map to Fortran 95. The main goal is to enable readers to quickly start using Fortran 95 for writing useful programs. It also introduces a gradual discussion of Input/Output facilities relevant for Earth system sciences, from the simplest ones to the more advanced netCDF library (which has become a de facto standard for handling the massive datasets used within Earth system sciences). While related works already treat these disciplines separately (each often providing much more information than needed by the beginning practitioner), the reader finds in this book a shorter guide which links them. Compared to other books, this work provides a much more compact view of the language, while also placing the language-elements in a more applied setting, by providing examples related to numerical computing and more advanced Input/Output facilities for Earth system sciences. Naturally, the coverage of the programming language is relatively shallow, since many details are skipped. However, many of these details can be learned gradually by the practitioner, after getting an overview and some practice with the language through this book.

Data Driven Process Discovery And Analysis

Author : Karl Aberer
ISBN : 9783642340444
Genre : Computers
File Size : 28. 81 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Advances In Cancer Stem Cell Biology

Author : Roberto Scatena
ISBN : 1461408091
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 8 MB
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In recent years, cancer stem cells have been recognized as important component in carcinogenesis and they seem to form the basis of many (if not all) tumor types. Cancer stem cells or "cancer cell like stem cells" have been isolated from various cancers of different origin (blood, breast, brain, skin, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). Cancer stem cells - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours- seem to show intriguing relationships with physiological stem cells. Specifically, these cancer cells show significant similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells. Moreover, tumour cells might directly arise from normal stem cells. Further, the cellular biology of cancer stem cells show a lot of similarities with normal stem cells.

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