domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

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Domestic Wastewater Treatment In Developing Countries

Author : Duncan Mara
ISBN : 9781136567919
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66. 76 MB
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Affordable and effective domestic wastewater treatment is a critical issue in public health and disease prevention around the world, particularly so in developing countries which often lack the financial and technical resources necessary for proper treatment facilities. This practical guide provides state-of-the-art coverage of methods for domestic wastewater treatment and provides a foundation to the practical design of wastewater treatment and re-use systems. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance 'natural' systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture, for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds, wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs; constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. This book is essential reading for engineers, academics and upper-level and graduate students in engineering, wastewater management and public health, and others interested in sustainable and cost-effective technologies for reducing wastewater-related diseases and environmental damage.

Anaerobic Municipal Wastewater Treatment Comparison And Assessment Of Different Design Approaches For Uasb Reactors

Author : Felipe Teixeira de Carvalho
ISBN : 9783842823624
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29. 67 MB
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Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: It is well known that freshwater is finite and an indispensable resource for any living organism on Earth. Inappropriately, during the last decades, anthropogenic activities expansion, in parallel with population growth, has been the main cause of the deterioration of water quality. According to UNESCO the world s population is growing nearby 80 million people each year, which suggests an increasing of freshwater demand of about 64 billion m3 a year. Likewise, the demographic estimations indicate that 90% of the 3 billion people, who are expected to be added to the world population in 2050, will be living in developing countries, mainly in regions that are already by this time in water stress. However, in order to relate the increasing demand for water, not only the demographic aspect should be taken into account but also economic and social aspects must be considered. The economic expansion affects water since there is an increase in the number of consumers as well as modifications in their consumption habits, in a way that services are offered, goods are produced and transported. The social aspect points out to individual rather than collective actions mainly considering poverty, education, culture, lifestyle and consumption patterns. Obviously the demand and the importance for satisfactory sanitation conditions become indispensable. The World Health Organization (WHO) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report that 2.5 billion people still have a lack of access to improved sanitation, including 1.2 billion people who have no facilities at all. While in developed areas the sanitation coverage achieves 99%, in developing regions this number is around 53%. Furthermore, in Latin America and the Caribbean the coverage sanitation is approximately 79%. In Brazil, target area of this study, only 55.2% of the municipalities are covered by a sewage collection system. In this manner, coverage sanitation does not mean necessarily that the wastewater is treated. Hence, the wastewater must be followed by a treatment system (removal of physical, chemical and biological compounds) in order to achieve pollution mitigation targets for the environmental quality and human health and welfare. According to UNESCO more than 80% of the domestic wastewater in developing countries is discharged untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. Therefore, a large number of technologies have been developed with the intention [...]

Municipal Wastewater Management In Developing Countries

Author : Zaini Ujang
ISBN : 9781843390305
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 24 MB
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Municipal Wastewater Management in Developing Countries discusses various approaches to municipal wastewater management in order to protect both public health and the environment, with the major focus being on waterborne diseases. Developing countries can be divided into two main categories, i.e. countries in transition with higher growth rates where industrialisation and urbanisation are taking place rapidly, and countries with slower growth rates. It is important, therefore, that approaches should be tailor-made and site-specific. In general, the major trends of water pollution control have significantly contributed to the development of ?conventional sanitation? approaches in terms of legal and financial frameworks, as well as technological enhancement. Despite advances in the science, engineering and legal frameworks, 95 per cent of the wastewater in the world is released into the environment without treatment. Only five per cent of global wastewater is properly treated using the ?standard? sanitation facilities, mainly in developed countries. As a result, the majority of the world?s population is still exposed to waterborne diseases, and the quality of water resources has been rapidly degraded, particularly in poor developing countries. The challenge now is to provide the world?s population, especially the poor, with adequate water and sanitation facilities. Despite billions of dollars of investment spent every year, billions of poor people are still suffering and dying because of poor sanitation. At the beginning of this century, about 1.1 billion people lived without access to clean water (compared to about the same number in 1990), 2.4 billion without appropriate sanitation (compared to 2.3 billion in 1990) and four billion without sound wastewater disposal. The future scenario, that water resources will be further depleted by a growing world population, will be coupled with environmental degradation due to poor pollution control, particularly in most of the developing countries. In order to address the issue of water and wastewater management in developing countries it is necessary to take into consideration the segments of the society itself, particularly the types of housing areas. The segments will indicate the level of socio-economic, mentality and knowledge, which is important for any planned changes in their life style and social engineering. It is also important to segregate the funding framework of any proposed projects. High-income urban communities, for instance, are generally willing to pay for sewerage services and higher water supply tariffs, therefore a designated system can be accordingly provided. Over the past 10 years, serious criticism has been given to the ?conventional sanitation? approach, consequently many definitions, concepts and characteristics have been proposed on ?sustainable sanitation?. Sustainable sanitation is a relevant concept in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 of providing water supply and adequate sanitation for developing countries. Sustainable sanitation is flexible in approach any community ? poor or rich, urban or rural, water-rich or water-poor country ? and requires lower investment costs compared to conventional sanitation approaches. It is also important to note that the framework of sustainable sanitation is much easier to adopt in developing countries where water supply and sanitation infrastructures are still in the developing stages. In some developing countries, no public facilities are available therefore it is an ideal condition to start a new infrastructure with a new framework. This comprehensive reference, prepared by leading international authorities, will provide an invaluable reference for all those concerned with the management of sanitation services in developing countries worldwide.

Wetlands For Tropical Applications

Author : Norio Tanaka
ISBN : 9781848162983
Genre : Constructed wetlands
File Size : 39. 48 MB
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This book provides a systematic exposition of the design features of constructed wetlands, and their management (in terms of siting, physical maintenance, and operation). Only very few books (or chapters) have been published on constructed wetlands in tropical conditions and none are current. The selection of plant species, managing their growth and harvesting cycles, and the impact these have on the attenuation of organic and inorganic pollutants, nutrients, and pathogens would be of interest to students and practitioners of the art working under tropical conditions. The potential of constructed wetlands as a low-cost intervention for developing countries in tropical regions that faced water pollution problems, in particular, deserves to be explored systematically.

Environmental Technology

Author : K.J.A. de Waal
ISBN : 9789400936638
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 33 MB
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Five billion people, at present the world population, inevitably affect the quality of the environment. The general public in an increasing number of countries is getting more and more concerned about this deterioration in quality. As a result many people cast doubts upon the desirability of the increase in energy consumption, the production of superfluous goods, ever-growing waste flows, harmful emissions of industrial processes, and so on. Actually, no one can simply ignore these issues. For instance, the authorities could introduce more environmental legislation aiming at a healthy environment; industries could change to cleaner production processes; the public at large should assume an even more conservation-minded attitude rather than confine themselves to shaking a finger at 'the industry'. In short, in all sectors of society there are often numerous ways and means of curbing environmental pollution. Clearly, environmental technology - the development and application of techniques to identify, quantify and reduce environmental problems - can make a substantial contribution here in many situations. Until now a large number of such new techniques have been developed. Many of these techniques not only appear to add greatly to reducing the burden on the environment, they sometimes also offer interesting economic advantages (savings in raw material and energy, etc.).

International Third World Studies Journal Review

Author :
ISBN : IND:30000111171256
Genre : Developing countries
File Size : 40. 88 MB
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Oxidation Ditches In Wastewater Treatment

Author : Christopher F. Forster
ISBN : UOM:39015008088646
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28. 3 MB
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Industrial Wastewater Treatment In Developing Countries

Author : Akademiet for de tekniske videnskaber (Denmark).
ISBN : IND:39000008328135
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 32. 22 MB
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Pollution Control And Waste Management In Developing Countries

Author : Rogers W'O. Okot-Uma
ISBN : 0850925576
Genre : Nature
File Size : 54. 2 MB
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A practical view of environmental management, focusing on pollution control and waste management. It records the experience gained through Commonwealth Secretariat regional seminars conducted in Africa over several years. It uses real examples to illustrate the points made.

Environmental Challenges

Author : Shimson Belkin
ISBN : 9789401143691
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 39 MB
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In the summer of 1999, an international group of experts convened in Jerusalem, Israel, in order to define the major environmental challenges facing humanity at the dawn of the new millennium and - where possible - propose ways of addressing them. Almost 50 selected articles are collected in the present book, which constitutes a striking interdisciplinary combination of state-of-the-art science with the latest views on environmental law, education, and international cooperation. Whilst a major fraction of the book is devoted to water-related issues (water quality monitoring, water and wastewater treatment, water-based international cooperation, and more), other sections deal with timely topics relating to air pollution, biodiversity, conservation, and education. The book is intended for environmental scientists, professionals, and students of all disciplines.

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