cross calibration of far uv spectra of solar system objects and the heliosphere 13 issi scientific report series

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Cross Calibration Of Far Uv Spectra Of Solar System Objects And The Heliosphere

Author : Eric Quémerais
ISBN : 9781461463849
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 11 MB
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This book is the result of a working group sponsored by ISSI in Bern, which was initially created to study possible ways to calibrate a Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument after launch. In most cases, ultraviolet instruments are well calibrated on the ground, but unfortunately, optics and detectors in the FUV are very sensitive to contaminants and it is very challenging to prevent contamination before and during the test and launch sequences of a space mission. Therefore, ground calibrations need to be confirmed after launch and it is necessary to keep track of the temporal evolution of the sensitivity of the instrument during the mission. The studies presented here cover various fields of FUV spectroscopy, including a catalog of stellar spectra, datasets of Moon Irradiance, observations of comets and measurements of the interplanetary background. Detailed modelling of the interplanetary background is presented as well. This work also includes comparisons of older datasets with current ones. This raises the question of the consistency of the existing datasets. Previous experiments have been calibrated independently and comparison of the datasets may lead to inconsistencies. The authors have tried to check that possibility in the datasets and when relevant suggest a correction factor for the corresponding data.

Earth Observation Open Science And Innovation

Author : Pierre-Philippe Mathieu
ISBN : 9783319656335
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 5 MB
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This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. Over the past decades, rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to monitor our planet and transforming the way we access, process and exploit Earth Observation data from satellites. This book reviews these megatrends and their implications for the Earth Observation community as well as the wider data economy. It provides insight into new paradigms of Open Science and Innovation applied to space data, which are characterized by openness, access to large volume of complex data, wide availability of new community tools, new techniques for big data analytics such as Artificial Intelligence, unprecedented level of computing power, and new types of collaboration among researchers, innovators, entrepreneurs and citizen scientists. In addition, this book aims to provide readers with some reflections on the future of Earth Observation, highlighting through a series of use cases not just the new opportunities created by the New Space revolution, but also the new challenges that must be addressed in order to make the most of the large volume of complex and diverse data delivered by the new generation of satellites.

Observing Photons In Space

Author : Martin C. E. Huber
ISBN : 9781461478041
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 65 MB
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An ideal resource for lecturers, this book provides a comprehensive review of experimental space astronomy. The number of astronomers whose knowledge and interest is concentrated on interpreting observations has grown substantially in the past decades; yet, the number of scientists who are familiar with and capable of dealing with instrumentation has dwindled. All of the authors of this work are leading and experienced experts and practitioners who have designed, built, tested, calibrated, launched and operated advanced observing equipment for space astronomy. This book also contains concise information on the history of the field, supported by appropriate references. Moreover, scientists working in other fields will be able to get a quick overview of the salient issues of observing photons in any one of the various energy, wavelength and frequency ranges accessible in space. This book was written with the intention to make it accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

Developing Basic Space Science World Wide

Author : Willem Wamsteker
ISBN : 9781402025198
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 79 MB
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? J. Andersen Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy Physics and Geophysics Astronomical Observatory Copenhagen [email protected] The development of astronomy worldwide begins at the roots: Already from childhood, humans of all nations and civilizations seem to share an innate fascination with the sky. Yet, people in different regions of the world have vastly different possibilities for pursuing this interest. In wealthy, industrialised societies the way is open to a school or higher education in science, possibly leading to a career in astronomy or basic or applied space science for the benefit of the country as well as the individual. In other regions, neither the financial nor the trained human resources are sufficient to offer that avenue to the future of the young generation, or those intellectual resources to the development of their country. This book addresses ways and means by which these obstacles can be, if not fully overcome, then at least significantly reduced.

Kappa Distributions

Author : George Livadiotis
ISBN : 9780128046395
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 29 MB
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Kappa Distributions: Theory and Applications in Plasmas presents the theoretical developments of kappa distributions, their applications in plasmas, and how they affect the underpinnings of our understanding of space and plasma physics, astrophysics, and statistical mechanics/thermodynamics. Separated into three major parts, the book covers theoretical methods, analytical methods in plasmas, and applications in space plasmas. The first part of the book focuses on basic aspects of the statistical theory of kappa distributions, beginning with their connection to the solid backgrounds of non-extensive statistical mechanics. The book then moves on to plasma physics, and is devoted to analytical methods related to kappa distributions on various basic plasma topics, spanning linear/nonlinear plasma waves, solitons, shockwaves, and dusty plasmas. The final part of the book deals with applications in space plasmas, focusing on applications of theoretical and analytical developments in space plasmas from the heliosphere and beyond, in other astrophysical plasmas. Kappa Distributions is ideal for space, plasma, and statistical physicists; geophysicists, especially of the upper atmosphere; Earth and planetary scientists; and astrophysicists. Answers important questions, such as how plasma waves are affected by kappa distributions and how solar wind, magnetospheres, and other geophysical, space, and astrophysical plasmas can be modeled using kappa distributions Presents the features of kappa distributions in the context of plasmas, including how kappa indices, temperatures, and densities vary among the species populations in different plasmas Provides readers with the information they need to decide which specific formula of kappa distribution should be used for a certain occasion and system (toolbox)

Physics Of Collisionless Shocks

Author : André Balogh
ISBN : 9781461460992
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 46 MB
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The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats subcritical shocks which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecting particles back upstream and generating high electromagnetic wave intensities. Particle acceleration and turbulence at such shocks become possible and important. Part II treats planetary bow shocks and the famous Heliospheric Termination shock as examples of two applications of the theory developed in part I.

Solar Variability And Planetary Climates

Author : Y. Calisesi
ISBN : 9780387483412
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 46 MB
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This book provides an updated overview of the processes determining the influence of solar forcing on climate. It discusses in particular the most recent developments regarding the role of aerosols in the climate system and the new insights that could be gained from the investigation of terrestrial climate analogues. The book’s structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005.

A Question And Answer Guide To Astronomy

Author : Carol Christian
ISBN : 9781108211321
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 93 MB
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Are we alone in the Universe? Was there anything before the Big Bang? Are there other universes? What makes stars shine? Where does Earth's water come from? Why is the night sky dark? Was there ever life on Mars? How do telescopes work? This engaging guide book answers all these questions and hundreds more, making it a practical reference for anyone who has ever wondered what is out in the cosmos, where it all comes from, and how it all works. Richly illustrated in color throughout, it gives simple yet rigorous explanations in non-technical language, summarizing current astronomical knowledge, without overlooking the important underlying scientific principles. This second edition includes substantial new material throughout, including the latest findings from the New Horizons, Rosetta, and Dawn space missions, and images from professional telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

Nasa Spinoff 1996

Author : James J. Haggerty
ISBN : 9780788139819
Genre :
File Size : 79. 84 MB
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Summarizes NASA's current mainline programs whose objectives require development of new technology. Includes a representative sampling of spinoff products & processes that resulted from secondary application of NASA technology, in health & medicine, transportation, public safety, consumer/home/recreation, environment & resources management, computer technology, & manufacturing technology. Describes the various mechanisms NASA employs to stimulate technology transfer. Contains contact sources for further info. about the Technology Transfer Program.

Geomagnetic Observations And Models

Author : M. Mandea
ISBN : 9048198585
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 4 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas linked to geomagnetic field observation, from instrumentation to methodology, on ground or near-Earth. Efforts are also focused on a 21st century e-Science approach to open access to all geomagnetic data, but also to the data preservation, data discovery, data rescue, and capacity building. Finally, modeling magnetic fields with different internal origins, with their variation in space and time, is an attempt to draw together into one place the traditional work in producing models as IGRF or describing the magnetic anomalies.

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