crop genetic resources as a global commons challenges in international law and governance issues in agricultural biodiversity

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Crop Genetic Resources As A Global Commons

Author : Michael Halewood
ISBN : 9781844078929
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 14 MB
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The Earth's plant genetic resources are a common inheritance of all humankind, which should be held in shared trust for a common future. A key component of the global genetic commons is agricultural biodiversity. Our food and livelihood security depend on the sustained management of these diverse biological resources that are important for food and agriculture. Whilst agricultural biodiversity originates in specific farming communities, it has been shared widely and is considered by many to be part of the much-threatened global commons.This book is about the creation, management and use of the global crop commons. It focuses primarily on the legal and administrative construct that provides the basis of the global crop commons, that is, the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing created by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This is particularly significant because it transcends the traditional dichotomy between privatization and total governmental control. It came into effect in 2006 and the book describes its origins and implementation since then, showing how many international organizations and some developing countries are moving quickly with implementation, while other countries are moving slowly and some multinational corporations are expressing misgivings about the system overall. The authors further analyze current challenges and how they might be resolved.

Biodiversity And Nature Protection Law

Author : Elisa Morgera
ISBN : 9781783474257
Genre : Law
File Size : 57. 48 MB
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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.The unprecedented degradation of the planet's vital ecosystems and species, and the consequent damage to the variability of life on Earth, are one of the most pressing issues confronting the international community. The purpose of this volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is to provide a critical assessment of international biodiversity law in the face of the failed attempts to reduce the global trend in irreversible biodiversity loss and the need to increase efforts, including through indirect drivers of change such as institutions, governance and legal frameworks. The volume assesses comprehensively how and to what extent international law has addressed the key concerns presently facing biodiversity conservation, made recourse to conventional and market-based approaches to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, tackled cross-cutting issues, and considered direct as well as indirect changes in socio-economic conditions. In doing so, the volume examines the historical development, principles, themes and cross cutting issues of international biodiversity law. Each article, written by an invited expert in that field, contains an overview of the topic, provides a concise review of current knowledge, identifies new directions for cutting-edge research and offers an extensive bibliography.This major research-focused resource and its in-depth exploration of the field of biodiversity law is an essential reference for university students, teachers, researchers, practitioners and policy makers.

Genetic Resources As Natural Information

Author : Manuel Ruiz Muller
ISBN : 9781317624165
Genre : Law
File Size : 75. 47 MB
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Demonstrating the shortcomings of current policy and legal approaches to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this book recognizes that genetic resources are widely distributed across countries and that bilateral contracts undermine fairness and equity. The book offers a practical and feasible regulatory alternative to ensure the goal of fairness and equity is effectively and efficiently met. Through a legal analysis that also incorporates historic, economic and sociological perspectives, the book argues that genetic resources are not tangible resources but information. It shows that the existing preference for bilateralism and contracts reflects resistance on the part of many of the stakeholders involved in the CBD process to recognize them as such. ABS issues respond very well to the economics of information, yet as the author explains, these have been either sidelined or overlooked. At a time when the Nagoya Protocol on ABS has renewed interest in feasible policy options, the author provides a constructive and provocative critique. The institutional, policy and regulatory framework constitute "bounded openness" under which fairness and equity emerge.

Plant Genetic Resources And Food Security

Author : Christine Frison
ISBN : 9781136536847
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 33 MB
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The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is a pivotal piece of recent legislation, providing a route map for the use of such resources for sustainable agriculture and food security. This book explains clearly the different interests and views at stake between all players in the global food chain. Published with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and Bioversity International.

Governance For A Sustainable Future

Author : World Humanity Action Trust
ISBN : STANFORD:36105110935868
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 35 MB
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Biodiversity And The Law

Author : Charles R. McManis
ISBN : 9781136571060
Genre : Nature
File Size : 45. 40 MB
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How do we promote global economic development, while simultaneously preserving local biological and cultural diversity? This authoritative volume, written by leading legal experts and biological and social scientists from around the world, aims to address this question in all of its complexity. The first part of the book focuses on biodiversity and examines what we are losing, why and what is to be done. The second part addresses biotechnology and looks at whether it is part of the solution or part of the problem, or perhaps both. The third section examines traditional knowledge, explains what it is and how, if at all, it should be protected. The fourth and final part looks at ethnobotany and bioprospecting and offers practical lessons from the vast and diverse experiences of the contributors.

Author : جان جاك روسو
ISBN : 9789777193429
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34. 15 MB
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يقول الكاتب: ضع محلَّ هذهِ النقطِ النعتَ الذي تُريدهُ، فأنا قدْ حلفتُ أنْ لا أكتبَ مقدمةً لكتابٍ من كتبي، وأبيتُ أنْ أستجدي المقدماتِ ولو من أفلاطون، وامتنعتُ عنْ أن أقُدِّمَ شاعرًا أو كاتبًا إلى القارئ، وسواء عندي أكان قد خملَ ذكرُهُ أم طارَ صيته حتى اختفى خلف الغيوم. ، إنها كلمة أريد أن )أعترف) لك بها ، فأطلعك في هذا الديوان على نزعاتي كلها ، بل على دخيلة نفسي حتى على (الأسرار) المكتومة منها. ، عود فأقول لك هذه كلمة لا مقدِّمة وبعدُ، فاعلم يا عزيزي — رعاكَ للهُ وحفظني وحفظكَ — أن ديواني هذا ليس سلَّةَ مشمش (لِأوجِّهَها) لك، فلا أنا بائعٌ ولا أنت شارٍ، لا يا أخي، إنً هذا الديوان رسالة … عفوًا! هو فكرةٌ عشتُ بها زمنًا رغدًا، وما زلت أحِنُّ إليها، وأنا على هواها. حالي معها كحالِ الرجلِ معَ صاحبتهِ، قد تتنكَّر له، وقد يجفوها، ولكنَّهما في الحالينِ، حال الرضا والغضب، واليسر والعسر، حبيبانِ، ودودانِ، متيَّمان، مولَّهان، ولولا ذلك لم يتشاكسا، أؤكِّد لك أني) لم أحرد) يومًا كاملًا، أي لم تغربِ الشمسُ على غضبي؛ ولهذا ها أنا أضع بين يديك الكريمتين قصائدي، كما قلتها في وقتها، لم أحكك ولم

Annual Report

Author : Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
ISBN : CORNELL:31924097802684
Genre : Agriculture
File Size : 84. 80 MB
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Encyclopedia Of World Problems And Human Potential Actions Strategies Solutions

Author : Union of International Associations
ISBN : 3598112270
Genre : Civilization, Modern
File Size : 59. 3 MB
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The destruction of wildlife habitats ... organized crime ... AIDS ... illiteracy ... acid rain -- these are among the 130,000 topics documented and discussed in the new edition of the Encyclopedia. But its truly unique goal is to present this complex set of issues in ways that facilitate an organized response. To this end, the book also focuses on the complex relationship between problems and society's own ideological relationship with these problems. How do human priorities and perceptions aggravate or enable problems? What are the established and alternative responses? The Encyclopedia contains over 158,000 cross-references between entries, an extensive 91,000 practical key term index, bibliographies, and full cross-referencing to the Yearbook of International Organizations. For anyone concerned with the world community, here are the means to explore and participate in today's most crucial endeavors. A new addition to the work, Volume 3, Action -- Strategies -- Solutions, presents strategies for coping with world problems, with an emphasis on vicious self-sustaining cycles of problems.

Hansel Et Gretel

Author : Joan Cameron
ISBN : 0721412823
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 63. 77 MB
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A retelling of the familiar tale in which two children abandoned in the forest find their way home despite an encounter with a wicked witch.

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