cosmic ray astrophysics astronomy and astrophysics library

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Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

Author : Reinhard Schlickeiser
ISBN : 9783662048146
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 46 MB
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In the first part, the book gives an up-to-date summary of the observational data. In the second part, it deals with the kinetic description of cosmic ray plasma. The underlying diffusion-convection transport equation, which governs the coupling between cosmic rays and the background plasma, is derived and analyzed in detail. In the third part, several applications of the solutions of the transport equation are presented and how key observations in cosmic ray physics can be accounted for is demonstrated.

Nonlinear Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theories

Author : Andreas Shalchi
ISBN : 9783642003097
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 32 MB
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If charged particles move through the interplanetary or interstellar medium, they interact with a large-scale magnetic ?eld such as the magnetic ?eld of the Sun or the Galactic magnetic ?eld. As these background ?elds are usually nearly constant in time and space, they can be approximated by a homogeneous ?eld. If there are no additional ?elds, the particle trajectory is a perfect helix along which the par- cle moves at a constant speed. In reality, however, there are turbulent electric and magnetic?elds dueto the interstellaror solar wind plasma. These ?elds lead to sc- tering of the cosmic rays parallel and perpendicular to the background ?eld. These scattering effects, which usually are of diffusive nature, can be described by s- tial diffusion coef?cients or, alternatively, by mean free paths. The knowledge of these parameters is essential for describing cosmic ray propagation as well as d- fusive shock acceleration. The latter process is responsible for the high cosmic ray energies that have been observed. The layout of this book is as follows. In Chap. 1, the general physical scenario is presented. We discuss fundamental processes such as cosmic ray propagation and acceleration in different systems such as the solar system or the interst- lar space. These processes are a consequence of the interaction between charged cosmic particles and an astrophysical plasma (turbulence). The properties of such plasmas are therefore the subject of Chap. 2.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author : Thierry J.-L. Courvoisier
ISBN : 9783642309694
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 57 MB
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High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, etc), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics processes are crucial. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

Astrophysics

Author : Wolfgang Kundt
ISBN : 9783662043479
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 97 MB
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Devised for a quantitative understanding of the physics of the universe from the solar system through the milky way to clusters of galaxies all the way to cosmology, this acclaimed text offers among the most concise and most critical ones of extant works. Special chapters are devoted to magnetic and radiation processes, disks, black-hole candidacy, bipolar flows, cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts, image distortions, and special sources. At the same time, planet earth is viewed as the arena for life, with plants and animals having evolved to homo sapiens during cosmic time. This text is unique in covering the basic qualitative and quantitative tools, formulae as well as numbers, needed to for the precise interpretation of frontline phenomena.

Exotic Nuclei And Nuclear Particle Astrophysics

Author : S. Stoica
ISBN : 9789812700070
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 12 MB
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This volume documents an important event in the World Year of Physics 2005 and a continuation of the traditional international summer schools that have taken place in Romania regularly since 1964. On one hand, the study of exotic nuclei seeks answers about the structure and interaction of unique finite quantum mechanical many-body systems. On the other, it provides data that have an impact on the understanding of the origin of the elements in the Universe.The contributions, written by outstanding professors from prestigious research centers over the world, provide the reader with both comprehensive reviews and the most recent results in the field. Large experimental facilities are discussed together with future research projects. The book offers insights into how experiments in terrestrial nuclear physics laboratories may be combined with observations in outer space to enlarge our basic knowledge.

The Universe In Gamma Rays

Author : Volker Schönfelder
ISBN : 9783662045930
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 4 MB
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After describing cosmic gamma-ray production and absorption, the instrumentation used in gamma-ray astronomy is explained. The main part of the book deals with astronomical results, including the somewhat surprising result that the gamma-ray sky is continuously changing.

Particles And Astrophysics

Author : Maurizio Spurio
ISBN : 9783319080512
Genre : Science
File Size : 51. 80 MB
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This book is an introduction to “multi-messenger” astrophysics. It covers the many different aspects connecting particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology and introduces astrophysics using numerous experimental findings recently obtained through the study of high-energy particles. Taking a systematic approach, it comprehensively presents experimental aspects from the most advanced laboratories and detectors, as well as the theoretical background. The book is aimed at graduate students and post-graduate researchers with a basic understanding of particle and nuclear physics. It will also be of interest to particle physicists working in accelerator/collider physics who are keen to understand the mechanisms of the largest accelerators in the Universe. The book draws on the extensive lecturing experience of Professor Maurizio Spurio from the University of Bologna.

Cosmic Rays At Earth

Author : P.K.F. Grieder
ISBN : 0080530052
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 37 MB
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In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological and medical aspects of the cosmic radiation because of it ionizing character and the inevitable irradiation to which we are exposed. This book is a reference manual for researchers and students of cosmic ray physics and associated fields and phenomena. It is not intended to be a tutorial. However, the book contains an adequate amount of background materials that its content should be useful to a broad community of scientists and professionals. The present book contains chiefly a data collection in compact form that covers the cosmic radiation in the vicinity of the Earth, in the Earth's atmosphere, at sea level and underground. Included are predominantly experimental but also theoretical data. In addition the book contains related data, definitions and important relations. The aim of this book is to offer the reader in a single volume a readily available comprehensive set of data that will save him the need of frequent time consuming literature searches.

Relativistic Astrophysics And Cosmology

Author : Peter Hoyng
ISBN : 9781402045233
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 66 MB
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Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology offers a succinct and self-contained treatment of general relativity and its application to compact objects, gravitational waves and cosmology. The required mathematical concepts are introduced informally, following geometrical intuition as much as possible. The approach is theoretical, but there is ample discussion of observational aspects and of instrumental issues where appropriate. The book includes such topical issues as the Gravity Probe B mission, interferometer detectors of gravitational waves, and the physics behind the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Written for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in (astro)physics, it is ideally suited for a lecture course and contains 140 exercises with extensive hints. The reader is assumed to be familiar with linear algebra and analysis, ordinary differential equations, special relativity, and basic thermal physics.

The Probes Of Multimessenger Astrophysics

Author : Maurizio Spurio
ISBN : 331996853X
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 1 MB
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"I have taught from and enjoyed the first edition of the book. The selection of topics is the best I've seen. Maurizio Spurio gives very clear presentations using a generous amount of observational data. " James Matthews (Louisiana State University) This is the second edition of an introduction to “multi-messenger” astrophysics. It covers the many different aspects connecting particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology and introduces high-energy astrophysics using different probes: the electromagnetic radiation, with techniques developed by traditional astronomy; charged cosmic rays, gamma-rays and neutrinos, with methods developed in high-energy laboratories; and gravitational waves, recently observed using laser interferometers. The book offers a comprehensive and systematic approach to the theoretical background and the experimental aspects of the study of the high-energy universe. The breakthrough discovery of gravitational waves motivated this new edition of the book, to offer a more global and multimessenger vision of high-energy astrophysics. This second edition is updated and enriched with substantial new materials also deriving from the results obtained at the LIGO/Virgo observatories. For the first time it is now possible to draw the connection between gravitational waves, traditional astronomical observations and other probes (in particular, gamma-rays and neutrinos). The book draws on the extensive courses of Professor Maurizio Spurio at the University of Bologna and it is aimed at graduate students and post-graduate researchers with a basic understanding of particle and nuclear physics. It will also be of interest to particle physicists working in accelerator/collider physics who are keen to understand the mechanisms of the largest accelerators in the Universe.

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