cognitive psychology an overview for cognitive scientists tutorial essays in cognitive science series

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Cognitive Psychology

Author : Lawrence W. Barsalou
ISBN : 9781317783688
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35. 67 MB
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This text presents the basic concepts of modern cognitive psychology in a succinct and accessible manner. Empirical results, theoretical developments, and current issues are woven around basic concepts to produce coherent accounts of research areas. Barsalou's primary goal is to equip readers with a conceptual vocabulary that acquaints them with the general approach of cognitive psychology and allows them to follow more technical discussions elsewhere. In meeting this goal, he discusses the traditional work central to modern thinking and reviews current work relevant to cognitive science. Besides focusing on research and theory in cognitive psychology, Barsalou also addresses its fundamental assumptions. Because the cognitive approach to psychology is somewhat subtle, often misunderstood, and sometimes controversial, it is essential for a text on cognitive psychology to address the assumptions that underlie it. Therefore, three of the eleven chapters address the "meta- assumptions" that govern research and theory in cognitive psychology. These meta-chapters provide a deeper understanding of the content areas and a clearer vision of what cognitive psychologists are trying to accomplish. The remaining eight "content" chapters cover the central topics in cognitive psychology. This book will be of value to a variety of audiences. Ideal for researchers in computer science, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology, and neuroscience who wish to acquaint themselves with cognitive psychology, it may also be used as a text for courses in cognitive science and cognitive psychology. Lay readers who wish to learn about the cognitive approach to scientific psychology will also find the volume useful.

Philosophy Of Science

Author : William Bechtel
ISBN : 9781317767480
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 48. 7 MB
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This text focuses on two major issues: the nature of scientific inquiry and the relations between scientific disciplines. Designed to introduce the basic issues and concepts in the philosophy of science, Bechtel writes for an audience with little or no philosophical background. The first part of the book explores the legacy of Logical Positivism and the subsequent post-Positivistic developments in the philosophy of science. The second section examines arguments for and against using a model of theory reduction to integrate scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a chapter describing non-reductionist approaches for relating scientific disciplines using psycholinguistic and cognitive neuroscience models.

Philosophy Of Mind

Author : William Bechtel
ISBN : 9781317785422
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 66. 38 MB
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Specifically designed to make the philosophy of mind intelligible to those not trained in philosophy, this book provides a concise overview for students and researchers in the cognitive sciences. Emphasizing the relevance of philosophical work to investigations in other cognitive sciences, this unique text examines such issues as the meaning of language, the mind-body problem, the functionalist theories of cognition, and intentionality. As he explores the philosophical issues, Bechtel draws connections between philosophical views and theoretical and experimental work in such disciplines as cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology.

Mental Mechanisms

Author : William Bechtel
ISBN : 9781136679704
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 85. 17 MB
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A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals. In recent decades these disciplines integrated, and with the advent of techniques for imaging activity in human brains, the term cognitive neuroscience has been applied to the integrated investigations of mind and brain. This book is a philosophical examination of how these disciplines continue in the mission of explaining our mental capacities.

Pragmatics And Natural Language Understanding

Author : Georgia M. Green
ISBN : 9781136492822
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 57. 13 MB
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This book differs from other introductions to pragmatics in approaching the problems of interpreting language use in terms of interpersonal modelling of beliefs and intentions. It is intended to make issues involved in language understanding, such as speech, text, and discourse, accessible to the widest group possible -- not just specialists in linguistics or communication theorists -- but all scholars and researchers whose enterprises depend on having a useful model of how communicative agents understand utterances and expect their own utterances to be understood. Based on feedback from readers over the past seven years, explanations in every chapter have been improved and updated in this thoroughly revised version of the original text published in 1989. The most extensive revisions concern the relevance of technical notions of mutual and normal belief, and the futility of using the notion 'null context' to describe meaning. In addition, the discussion of implicature now includes an extended explication of "Grice's Cooperative Principle" which attempts to put it in the context of his theory of meaning and rationality, and to preclude misinterpretations which it has suffered over the past 20 years. The revised chapter exploits the notion of normal belief to improve the account of conversational implicature.

Visual Cognition

Author : Steven Pinker
ISBN : 0262661780
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 75. 76 MB
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These essays tackle some of the central issues in visual cognition, presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, new ways of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and new ways of studying brain organization from neuropsychology, to address such questions as: How do we recognize objects in front of us? How do we reason about objects when they are absent and only in memory? How do we conceptualize the three dimensions of space? Do different people do these things in different ways? And where are these abilities located in the brain?While this research, which appeared as a special issue of the journal Cognition, is at the cutting edge of cognitive science, it does not assume a highly technical background on the part of readers. The book begins with a tutorial introduction by the editor, making it suitable for specialists and nonspecialists alike.Steven Pinker is Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Science at MIT.

Unsolved Mysteries Of The Mind

Author : Vicki Bruce
ISBN : 0863773923
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 29. 71 MB
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This textbook is for use in tutorials and seminars by psychology, neuroscience and cognitive science undergraduates studying cognition. The book complements standard course texts in cognition by providing a series of articles which emphasize particularly what we do not understand, rather than what we think we do. It considers a selection of problems and phenomena that remain mysterious despite years, decades or centuries of enquiry, and evaluates different approaches to these problems.; The topics discussed range from specific optical illusions to the nature of consciousness. Some of these unsolved problems provide a vehicle for reviewing different paradigms and shifts in the field over the 20th century. Each chapter also poses some of the remaining unanswered questions, suggesting directions for future enquiry.

The Psychology Of Eyewitness Identification

Author : James Michael Lampinen
ISBN : 9781136247125
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 77. 49 MB
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This volume provides a tutorial review and evaluation of scientific research on the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness identification. The book starts with the perspective that there are a variety of conceptual and empirical problems with eyewitness identification as a form of forensic evidence, just as there are a variety of problems with other forms of forensic evidence. There is then an examination of the important results in the study of eyewitness memory and the implications of this research for psychological theory and for social and legal policy. The volume takes the perspective that research on eyewitness identification can be seen as the paradigmatic example of how psychological science can be successfully applied to real-world problems.

The Deja Vu Experience

Author : Alan S. Brown
ISBN : 9781135432683
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 49. 25 MB
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Most of us have been perplexed by a strange sense of familiarity when doing something for the first time. We feel that we have been here before, or done this before, but know for sure that this is impossible. In fact, according to numerous surveys, about two-thirds of us have experienced déjà vu at least once, and most of us have had multiple experiences. There are a number of credible scientific interpretations of déjà vu, and this book summarizes the broad range of published work from philosophy, religion, neurology, sociology, memory, perception, psychopathology, and psychopharmacology. This book also includes discussion of cognitive functioning in retrieval and familiarity, neuronal transmission, and double perception during the déjà vu experience.

Cognitive Grammar

Author : Ronald W. Langacker
ISBN : 0198044194
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 74. 43 MB
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This book fills a long standing need for a basic introduction to Cognitive Grammar that is current, authoritative, comprehensive, and approachable. It presents a synthesis that draws together and refines the descriptive and theoretical notions developed in this framework over the course of three decades. In a unified manner, it accommodates both the conceptual and the social-interactive basis of linguistic structure, as well as the need for both functional explanation and explicit structural description. Starting with the fundamentals, essential aspects of the theory are systematically laid out with concrete illustrations and careful discussion of their rationale. Among the topics surveyed are conceptual semantics, grammatical classes, grammatical constructions, the lexicon-grammar continuum characterized as assemblies of symbolic structures (form-meaning pairings), and the usage-based account of productivity, restrictions, and well-formedness. The theory's central claim - that grammar is inherently meaningful - is thereby shown to be viable. The framework is further elucidated through application to nominal structure, clause structure, and complex sentences. These are examined in broad perspective, with exemplification from English and numerous other languages. In line with the theory's general principles, they are discussed not only in terms of their structural characterization, but also their conceptual value and functional motivation. Other matters explored include discourse, the temporal dimension of language structure, and what grammar reveals about cognitive processes and the construction of our mental world.

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