cognitive impairment in schizophrenia

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Cognitive Impairment In Schizophrenia

Author : Philip D. Harvey
ISBN : 9781107013209
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 10 MB
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Provides state-of-the-art information about cognition in schizophrenia with a wide ranging focus on measuring and treating cognitive deficits.

Measuring And Managing Cognitive Impairment In Schizophrenia

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ISBN : OCLC:949647840
Genre :
File Size : 36. 70 MB
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Cognitive Deficits In Schizophrenia And Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders Convergence Of Preclinical And Clinical Evidence

Author : Ales Stuchlik
ISBN : 9782889196791
Genre :
File Size : 30. 99 MB
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Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and etc., represent a serious medical and socioeconomic problems. These diseases are often accompanied by impairments of cognitive function, e.g., abstract thinking, decision-making, attention, and several types of memory. Such deficits significantly disrupt quality of life and daily functioning of patients. Cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric diseases are associated with alterations of brain morphology and function, and are often resistant to therapeutic interventions. In schizophrenia and related disorders, cognitive deficits are also defined as endophenotypes, i.e. measurable phenotypes linking these disaeses with discrete heritable and reproducible traits. This points to the importance of elucidating these endophenotypes in translational studies. Animal models may not mimic the full spectrum of clinical symptoms, but may act as analogies of particular behaviors or other pathological outcomes. They are useful to search for the etiology of particular psychiatric illnesses and novel therapeutics. Moreover, several behavioral tests to measure cognitive performance in rodents and other species have been implemented. The primary focus of the present topic is to provide up-to-date information on cognitive deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. This Research Topic also delineates future directions for translational studies aimed at developing novel treatments/interventions of cognitive disturbances.

Cognition In Schizophrenia

Author : Tonmoy Sharma
ISBN : UOM:39015050012973
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27. 19 MB
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Although it has been known for 100 years that cognitive functioning is impaired in schizophrenia, the implications of this impairment have only recently been clearly understood. While in the past, cognitive deficits were thought to be the result of other aspects of the illness, such as poorco- operation, or as a result of the treatment of the illness, it is now known that these factors exert only a very minor influence on cognitive deficit. This book, with contributions from the major international names in the field, reviews the most recent research on the impairment of cognitivefunctioning in schizophrenia, covering: what it is, how wide-ranging it can be, what the clinical implications are, and how it can be treated? The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides background information on the important aspects of cognitive functioning inschizophrenia. The second section provides information on the correlates of cognitive functioning, examining classical symptoms of the illness, as well as social and adaptive functional deficits. The final section provides information on the treatment of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia,from the older less effective treatments with conventional antipsychotics, to the developing treatment strategies using experimental compounds. A clear insight into cognitive deficit is the key to understanding why previous treatments have failed, and the key by which new treatments may change thisterrible illness, treatments significantly more effective than earlier interventions.

Negative Affective States And Cognitive Impairments In Nicotine Dependence

Author : F. Scott Hall
ISBN : 9780128026694
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39. 19 MB
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Negative Affective States and Cognitive Impairments in Nicotine Dependence is the only book of its kind that addresses nicotine use and abuse in the context of negative reinforcement mechanisms. Written and edited by leading investigators in addiction, affective, genetic, and cognitive research, it provides researchers and advanced students with an overview of the clinical bases of these effects, allowing them to fully understand the various underlying dysfunctions that drive nicotine use in different individuals. In addition, this book examines animal models that researchers have utilized to investigate the biological bases of these dysfunctions. The combination of clinical and preclinical approaches to understanding nicotine dependence makes this book an invaluable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop targeted treatments aimed at ameliorating symptoms of nicotine dependence, as well as identifying premorbid differences in affective or cognitive function. Provides a unique perspective on nicotine dependence that emphasizes negative reinforcement rather than positive reinforcement Examines psychiatric comorbidities and alleviation of withdrawal states as motivation for continued tobacco use Includes both clinical and preclinical perspectives Includes genetic and multi-neurotransmitter perspectives on nicotine use and withdrawal Emphasizes heterogeneity of underlying reasons for smoking, the need for multiple animal models to understand this heterogeneity, and the expectation of heterogeneous responses to potential treatments, underscoring the need for personalized therapeutics

Novel Antischizophrenia Treatments

Author : Mark A. Geyer
ISBN : 9783642257582
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82. 38 MB
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This volume tries to put current therapy - achievements, shortcomings, remaining medical needs - and emerging new targets into the context of increasing knowledge regarding the genetic and neurodevelopmental contributions to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Some of the chapters also deal with respective experimental and clinical methodology, biomarkers, and translational aspects of drug development. The volume concentrates on reviewing the ongoing research attempting to identify novel treatments for the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which are not treated adequately by current antipsychotic medications.

Measuring Stability Of Cognitive Impairment In Inpatients With Schizophrenia With Alternate Forms Of The Montreal Cognitive Assessment During Acute Hospitalization

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ISBN : OCLC:1016970677
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File Size : 21. 14 MB
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Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. Measuring the stability of cognitive impairment is important for further understanding of this disorder. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been demonstrated to be a brief and effective screening tool in detecting cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. It has alternative versions designed for longitudinal settings. The current study retrospectively analyzed the total and subscores of two versions of the MoCA, administered to a group of inpatients with severe schizophrenia at admission and discharge, to measure their cognitive stability during hospitalization. The results revealed that the test-retest reliability coefficient of the MoCA had good reliability, suggesting the two alternative versions of the MoCA are reliable measurements for assessing cognitive impairment repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia. The paired-samples t -test showed that the overall cognitive impairment of patients measured by two forms of the MoCA remained stable during acute hospital stay and across symptom changes. Furthermore, the results showed that patients' cognitive stability was not related to their symptom/illness severity improvement, age, education, or length of stay. Highlights: Mild cognitive impairment is common in patients with severe schizophrenia. The alternative forms of the MoCA appear to have great test-retest reliability. Patients' overall cognitive impairment seems to be stable during hospital stay.

Translational Neuropsychopharmacology

Author : Trevor W. Robbins
ISBN : 9783319339139
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 24 MB
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This book covers wide areas of animal and human psychopharmacology with clinical utility in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological (e.g Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The main theme is to develop a new paradigm for drug discovery that questions the claim that animal models or assays fail adequately to predict Phase 3 clinical trials. A new paradigm is advocated that stresses the importance of intermediate staging points between these extremes that depend on suitable translation of findings from animal studies to Phase 1 or Phase 2 studies utilising experimental medicine.

Animal Models Of Cognitive Impairment

Author : Edward D. Levin
ISBN : 9781420004335
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 37 MB
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The costs associated with a drug’s clinical trials are so significant that it has become necessary to validate both its safety and efficacy in animal models prior to the continued study of the drug in humans. Featuring contributions from distinguished researchers in the field of cognitive therapy research, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment examines some of the most popular and successful animal archetypes used in the context of drug discovery. It provides integrated coverage of the latest research concerning neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction, assimilating reviews of this research within the context of each chapter. This approach is unique in that it brings together molecular and neurochemical methodologies, behavioral applications in translational models, and clinical applications. The book comprehensively discusses a wide variety of animal models of cognitive impairment, including genetic, lesion, pharmacological, and aging related impairments. It also explores the significance of this research in regards to the treatment of various addictions and disorders such as stroke, autism, Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Edited by two renowned authorities in the field, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment is a timely book that provides integrated coverage of cutting-edge research that concerns neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction.

Cognitive Remediation For Psychological Disorders

Author : Alice Medalia
ISBN : 9780195383713
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 59. 21 MB
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Individuals who suffer from chronic mental disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, often experience cognitive deficits. For example, they may have difficulty with attention, memory, processing speed, abstract reasoning, and problem solving, among others. Cognitive remediation is an evidence-based behavioral treatment for people who are experiencing cognitive impairments that interfere with daily functioning. This volume contains all the information you need to set up a cognitive remediation program or "Learning Center" where clients can strengthen their cognitive skills. The program described is a group-based treatment that provides highly individualized learning, by allowing group members to work at their own pace on cognitive tasks carefully chosen to be both engaging and remedial. The goals of the Neuropsychological and Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation (NEAR) are to provide a positive learning experience to each and every client, to promote independent learning, and to promote optimal cognitive functioning in daily life. Clients come to the Learning Center for 60 - 90 minute sessions at least twice a week. Sessions are structured to enhance motivation and learning through a set of instructional techniques that are carefully implemented as outlined in this manual. Guidelines for effectively administering therapy and running a successful program as a cognitive remediation specialist are set forth in the chapters of this book. You will learn how to choose appropriate software, recruit clients, perform intakes and assessments, and create treatment plans. Strategies for dealing with difficult clinical situations are also provided. This guide comes complete with all the tools necessary for facilitating treatment, including program evaluation forms and client handouts. Remediation (NEAR) Model is an evidence-based approach to cognitive remediation that utilizes a set of carefully crafted instructional techniques that reflect an understanding of how people learn best. This therapist guide provides a step-by-step instruction on how to implement NEAR techniques with patients to improve their cognitive functioning and quality of life.

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