climate change climate science and economics prospects for an alternative energy future

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Climate Change Climate Science And Economics

Author : G. Cornelis van Kooten
ISBN : 9789400749887
Genre : Science
File Size : 45. 43 MB
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This volume enables readers to understand the complexity associated with climate change policy and the science behind it. For example, the author describes the criticism and defense of the widely known “hockey stick” temperature graph derived from combining instrumental data and proxy temperature indications using tree ring, ice core and other paleoclimatic data. Readers will also learn that global warming cannot easily be avoided by reducing CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions in rich countries. Not only is emissions reduction extremely difficult in rich countries, but demands such as the UN mandate to improve the lives of the poorest global citizens cannot be satisfied without significantly increasing global energy use, and CO2 emissions. Therefore, the author asserts that climate engineering and adaptation are preferable to mitigation, particularly since the science is less than adequate for making firm statements about the Earth’s future climate. Readers will also learn that global warming cannot easily be avoided by reducing CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions in rich countries. Not only is emissions reduction extremely difficult in rich countries, but demands such as the UN mandate to improve the lives of the poorest global citizens cannot be satisfied without significantly increasing global energy use, and CO2 emissions. Therefore, the author asserts that climate engineering and adaptation are preferable to mitigation, particularly since the science is less than adequate for making firm statements about the Earth’s future climate.

Forestry For A Low Carbon Future

Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN : 9789251093122
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 45 MB
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Forests are critical to mitigation, having a dual role; they function globally as a carbon sink but are also responsible for about 10 to 12 percent of global emissions. Forests and forest products offer both developing and developing countries with a wide range of options for timely and cost-effective mitigation. Afforestation / reforestation offers the best option because of its short timescale and ease of implementation. Reducing deforestation, especially due to the possibility for immediate action. Yet forest contributions to mitigation. Wood products and wood energy can replace fossil-intense products in other sectors, creating a virtuous cycle towards low-carbon economies. The mitigation potential and costs of the various options differ greatly by activity, region, system boundaries and time horizon. Policymakers must decide on the optimal mix of options, adapted to local circumstances, for meeting national climate change and development goals. This publication assesses the options and highlights the enabling conditions, opportunities and potential bottlenecks. It will be supported by policymakers, investors and investors in their climate strategies. This publication assesses the options and highlights the enabling conditions, opportunities and potential bottlenecks. It will be supported by policymakers, investors and investors in their climate strategies. This publication assesses the options and highlights the enabling conditions, opportunities and potential bottlenecks. It will be supported by policymakers, investors and investors in their climate strategies.

Climate Change And American Policy

Author : John R. Burch, Jr.
ISBN : 9781476665276
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42. 55 MB
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Climate change has long been a contentious issue, even before its official acknowledgment as a global threat in 1979. Government policies have varied widely, from Barack Obama's dedication to environmentalism to George W. Bush's tacit minimizing of the problem to Republican officials' refusal to acknowledge the scientific evidence supporting anthropogenic climate change. Presented chronologically, this collection of important policy-shaping documents shows how the views of both advocates and deniers of climate change have developed over the past four decades.

Salvation In The World

Author : Stephan van Erp
ISBN : 9780567678171
Genre : Religion
File Size : 61. 4 MB
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What happens when Edward Schillebeeckx's theology crosses paths with contemporary public theology? This volume examines the theological heritage that Schillebeeckx has left behind, as well as it critically assesses its relevance for temporary theological scene. In tracing the way(s) in which Schillebeeckx observed and examined his own context's increasing secularization and concomitant development toward atheism, the contributors to this volume indicate the potential directions for a contemporary public theology that pursues the path which Schillebeeckx has trodden. The essays in the first part of this volume indicate a different theological self-critique undertaken in response to developments in the public sphere. This is followed by a thorough examination of the degree to which Schillebeeckx succeeded in leading Christian theology ahead without merely accommodating the Christian tradition to current societal trends. The third part of the volume discusses the issues of climate change, social conceptions of progress, as well as the evolutionary understandings of the origins and purpose of religions. The final part examines Schillebeeckx's soteriology to contemporary discussions about wholeness.

World Economic Outlook April 2008

Author : International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
ISBN : 9781451927795
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83. 47 MB
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The global expansion is losing speed in the face of a major financial crisis. The slowdown has been greatest in the advanced economies, particularly in the United States, where the housing market correction continues to exacerbate financial stress. The emerging and developing economies have so far been less affected by fi nancial market developments and have continued to grow at a rapid pace, led by China and India, although activity is beginning to slow in some countries. At the same time, headline infl ation has increased around the world, boosted by the continuing buoyancy of food and energy prices. Policymakers around the world are facing a diverse and fast-moving set of challenges, and although each country's circumstances differ, in an increasingly multipolar world it will be essential to meet these challenges broadly, taking full account of cross-border interactions. The World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF staff's analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level, in major country groups (classified by region, stage of development, etc.), and in many individual countries. It focuses on major economic policy issues as well as on the analysis of economic developments and prospects. It is usually prepared twice a year, as documentation for meetings of the International Monetary and Financial Committee, and forms the main instrument of the IMF's global surveillance activities.

The Renewable Revolution

Author : Sajed Kamal
ISBN : 9781136540202
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51. 78 MB
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Our environment and society is threatened by fuel shortages, a changing climate and energy wars. In our race for survival we are awakened to the simple truth that the essential condition of sustainability lies in our ability to live within the limits and renewability of natural resources. It invokes within us an urgent need for transition from an obsolete, destructive and unsustainable energy path to a sustainable path of innovation, renewable energy and peace. The good news is that the technology required to make this transition is already available. From an author with over 30 years' experience campaigning for and setting up renewable energy projects around the world, this book is unique for its interdisciplinary approach-interweaving technology, economics, environmental science, philosophy, history, spirituality and politics, asserting that to understand the crisis and find a sustainable solution requires a holistic perspective. Readers will understand the vast renewable resource we have at our disposal in the form of solar, wind, water, heat and biogas, and the technologies used to harness this power. There are also the emerging prospects of solar hydrogen fuel cells, biofuels and geothermal. The true economic advantages of a shift to a renewables-based economy (and how we can get there) are also laid out clearly. There's much to learn from examples around the world while we devise local and appropriate solutions. Written for a crossover readership of students, educators, professionals, academics, activists and policymakers, both nationally and internationally, this is a comprehensive but readable and practical book that will inspire readers to wake others up to our renewable solutions.

Real Prospects For Energy Efficiency In The United States

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309156866
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 77 MB
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America's economy and lifestyles have been shaped by the low prices and availability of energy. In the last decade, however, the prices of oil, natural gas, and coal have increased dramatically, leaving consumers and the industrial and service sectors looking for ways to reduce energy use. To achieve greater energy efficiency, we need technology, more informed consumers and producers, and investments in more energy-efficient industrial processes, businesses, residences, and transportation. As part of the America's Energy Future project, Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States examines the potential for reducing energy demand through improving efficiency by using existing technologies, technologies developed but not yet utilized widely, and prospective technologies. The book evaluates technologies based on their estimated times to initial commercial deployment, and provides an analysis of costs, barriers, and research needs. This quantitative characterization of technologies will guide policy makers toward planning the future of energy use in America. This book will also have much to offer to industry leaders, investors, environmentalists, and others looking for a practical diagnosis of energy efficiency possibilities.

Limiting The Magnitude Of Future Climate Change

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309145978
Genre : Science
File Size : 83. 23 MB
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Climate change, driven by the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, poses serious, wide-ranging threats to human societies and natural ecosystems around the world. The largest overall source of greenhouse gas emissions is the burning of fossil fuels. The global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, the dominant greenhouse gas of concern, is increasing by roughly two parts per million per year, and the United States is currently the second-largest contributor to global emissions behind China. Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change, part of the congressionally requested America's Climate Choices suite of studies, focuses on the role of the United States in the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The book concludes that in order to ensure that all levels of government, the private sector, and millions of households and individuals are contributing to shared national goals, the United States should establish a "budget" that sets a limit on total domestic greenhouse emissions from 2010-2050. Meeting such a budget would require a major departure from business as usual in the way the nation produces and uses energy-and that the nation act now to aggressively deploy all available energy efficiencies and less carbon-intensive technologies and to develop new ones. With no financial incentives or regulatory pressure, the nation will continue to rely upon and "lock in" carbon-intensive technologies and systems unless a carbon pricing system is established-either cap-and-trade, a system of taxing emissions, or a combination of the two. Complementary policies are also needed to accelerate progress in key areas: developing more efficient, less carbon-intense energy sources in electricity and transportation; advancing full-scale development of new-generation nuclear power, carbon capture, and storage systems; and amending emissions-intensive energy infrastructure. Research and development of new technologies that could help reduce emissions more cost effectively than current options is also strongly recommended.

The Economics Of Climate Change Policies

Author : Rainer Walz
ISBN : 9783790820782
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 85. 1 MB
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In its latest Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) projects that without further action the global average surface t- perature would rise by a further 1. 8–4. 0°C until the end of this century. But even if the rise in temperature could be limited to the lower end of this range, irreversible and possibly catastrophic changes are likely to occur. Consequently, the protection of the earth’s atmosphere requires substantial efforts to reduce CO and other green- 2 house gas emissions – especially in countries with very high per capita emissions. To limit the imminent rise in temperature, in the Kyoto-Protocol, the European Union has committed itself to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8% up to 2008–2012 compared to 1990 levels. Within the EU burden sharing agr- ment, some countries have to achieve even higher emissions reductions. Germany was assigned a reduction target of 21%. The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in February 2005 marks a first step towards meting global climate targets, but more ambitious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is needed after 2012, when the Kyoto targets expire. Under German presidency, the EU has committed itself to unilaterally reduce its greenhouse gas emissions until 2020 by 20%. In case a Post- Kyoto agreement can be reached, the EU reduction target would be 30% (CEU, 2007).

Biofuels In Brazil

Author : Silvio Silvério da Silva
ISBN : 9783319050201
Genre : Science
File Size : 37. 38 MB
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This book discusses the commercialization of biofuels and the Brazilian government policies for the promotion of renewable energy program in Brazil, which could be a learning module for several countries for implementing biofuels policy to improve their socioeconomic status and make them energy independent. Researchers in academia and industries, policy makers, and economic analysts will be assisted by important source of information in their ongoing research and future perspectives. This book will benefit graduate and postgraduate students of chemical and biochemical engineering, forestry, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, applied chemistry, environmental science, sustainable energy, and biotech business disciplines by signifying the applied aspects of bioenergy production from various natural sources and their implications. Graduate and postgraduate students as well as postdoctoral researchers will find clear concepts of feedstock analysis, feedstock degradation, microbial fermentation, genetic engineering, renewable energy generation and storage, climate changes, and techno-economic analysis of biofuels production technologies.

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