chromatin signaling and diseases

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Chromatin Signaling And Diseases

Author : Olivier Binda
ISBN : 9780128026090
Genre : Science
File Size : 75. 82 MB
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Chromatin Signaling and Diseases covers the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which govern everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging, such as cancer. This book helps researchers learn about or keep up with the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling. After reading this book, clinicians will be more capable of explaining the mechanisms of gene expression regulation to their patients to reassure them about new drug developments that target chromatin signaling mechanisms. For example, several epigenetic drugs that act on chromatin signaling factors are in clinical trials or even approved for usage in cancer treatments, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Other epigenetic drugs are in development to regulate various class of chromatin signaling factors. To keep up with this changing landscape, clinicians and doctors will need to stay familiar with genetic advances that translate to clinical practice, such as chromatin signaling. Although sequencing of the human genome was completed over a decade ago and its structure investigated for nearly half a century, molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression remain largely misunderstood. An emerging concept called chromatin signaling proposes that small protein domains recognize chemical modifications on the genome scaffolding histone proteins, facilitating the nucleation of enzymatic complexes at specific loci that then open up or shut down the access to genetic information, thereby regulating gene expression. The addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, as well as the proteins that specifically recognize these, is reviewed in Chromatin Signaling and Diseases. Finally, the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling is also explored. Explains molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which governs everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging Educates clinicians and researchers about chromatin signaling, a molecular mechanism that is changing our understanding of human pathology Explores the addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, the proteins that specifically recognize these, and the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling Helps researchers learn about the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling

Chromatin Signaling And Neurological Disorders

Author :
ISBN : 0128137967
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 30 MB
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Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders, Volume Seven, explores our current understanding of how chromatin signaling regulates access to genetic information, and how their aberrant regulation can contribute to neurological disorders. Researchers, students and clinicians will not only gain a strong grounding on the relationship between chromatin signaling and neurological disorders, but they'll also discover approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies and epigenetic-based therapies. A diverse range of chapters from international experts speaks to the basis of chromatin and epigenetic signaling pathways and specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate a range of diseases. In addition to the basic science of chromatin signaling factors, each disease-specific chapter speaks to the translational or clinical significance of recent findings, along with important implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics. Common themes of translational significance are also identified across disease types, as well as the future potential of chromatin signaling research. Examines specific chromatin signaling factors that regulate spinal muscular atrophy, ulbospinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Angelman syndrome, Rader-Willi syndrome, and more Contains chapter contributions from international experts who speak to the clinical significance of recent findings and the implications for the development of epigenetics-based therapeutics Provides researchers, students and clinicians with approaches to better interpret and employ new diagnostic studies for treating neurological disorders

Role Of Stem Cells In Skeletal Muscle Development Regeneration Repair Aging And Disease

Author : Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
ISBN : 9782889198665
Genre :
File Size : 65. 55 MB
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Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

Non Cml Myeloproliferative Diseases An Issue Of Hematology Oncology Clinics Of North America E Book

Author : Ross Levine
ISBN : 9781455747641
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83. 56 MB
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Topics include: Clinical Predictors of Outcome in MPNs; Molecular pathogenesis of MPNs; Disordered signaling in MPNs; Role of TET2/ASXL1 in MPN Pathogenesis; Pathogenesis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis; Role of additional novel therapies in MPNs; Role of novel mutations in MPN pathogenesis and outcome; Role of JAK inhibitors in MPN treatment; Animal Models of MPNs; and Role of Germline Genetic Factors in MPN Pathogenesis.

Epigenetics Development And Disease

Author : Tapas Kumar Kundu
ISBN : 9789400745254
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 63 MB
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Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.

Cellular Signaling In Health And Disease

Author : Martin Beckerman
ISBN : 038798173X
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 35 MB
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In today’s world, three great classes of non-infectious diseases – the metabolic syndromes (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis), the cancers, and the neurodegenerative disorders – have risen to the fore. These diseases, all associated with increasing age of an individual, have proven to be remarkably complex and difficult to treat. This is because, in large measure, when the cellular signaling pathways responsible for maintaining homeostasis and health of the body become dysregulated, they generate equally stable disease states. As a result the body may respond positively to a drug, but only for a while and then revert back to the disease state. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease summarizes our current understanding of these regulatory networks in the healthy and diseased states, showing which molecular components might be prime targets for drug interventions. This is accomplished by presenting models that explain in mechanistic, molecular detail how a particular part of the cellular signaling web operates properly in health and improperly in disease. The stability of the health- and disease-associated states is dynamic and supported by multiple feedback loops acting positively and negatively along with linkages between pathways. During the past few years an ongoing series of important discoveries have been made that advance our understanding of how the body works and may guide us on how to better deal with these diseases. These include the discovery of chronic inflammation as a causal factor in all of these disease classes, the appearance of reactive oxygen species as a messenger molecule that can act both positively and negatively, the propensity of proteins to misfold into aggregation- and disease-prone forms, and the rise of epigenetics including the emergence of small non-coding RNA with important regulatory functions out of the so-called junk RNA. Chapters are devoted to each of these classes of findings with additional details integrated into the chapters dealing directly with the diseases. The connections responsible for maintaining stability are explored in depth.

Genomic Dark Matter Implications For Understanding Human Disease Mechanisms Diagnostics And Cures

Author : Philipp Kapranov
ISBN : 9782889190539
Genre :
File Size : 55. 70 MB
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The vast majority of the human genome has been historically ignored from the point of view of molecular mechanisms of disease, diagnostics and potential therapeutic targets. The predominant focus of disease research has traditionally been placed on the protein-coding regions of the human genome, which account for only ~4-5% of its total sequence complexity. This bias has an obvious underlying reason: protein-coding regions encode a crucial class of molecules in a cell, whose function and importance are well established. Furthermore, proteins are the predominant class of cellular molecules against which effective therapeutics can be designed. This bias pervades the design of analytical tools made to measure DNA, DNA-protein interactions, as well as procedures used to measure and annotate transcriptome expression. Microarrays for example, are often biased to the regions of genome known to encode exons or promoters of protein-coding mRNAs. Other aspects of our approach towards measuring expression of RNAs such as the typical choice of polyA+ RNA selection, enriched in mRNAs, for next generation sequencing also reinforces this bias. In summary, the 2-3% of the genome and RNAs made from it has dominated the conceptual thinking of academic and medical communities as well as industries that make devices that measure nucleic acids for research or diagnostic purposes and the pharmaceutical industry. However, during the last decade a tide of data has gained sufficient momentum to suggest that the cell actually uses the remaining 97-98% of the genome to produce stable RNAs – the so-called “dark matter” RNA. The first reports to suggest this were based on tiling array technology and sequencing of ESTs, which while powerful, had their limitations: tiling arrays could not estimate the relative mass of the RNAs produced from the non-protein coding regions in a cell and the EST sequencing methods were not deep enough. The advent of next-generation sequencing, in particular, single-molecule sequencing has allowed us not only confirm the previous observations but also for the first time to estimate not only from where, but also how much non-exonic RNA is produced. Its fraction of the total transcriptome is quite significant, up to 2/3 of all RNA made in a human cell ( ). Moreover, the non-exonic RNAs are differentially expressed in disease: for example, between the primary tumors and metastatic derivatives. We believe that the logical next step from these observations is to ask three questions, perhaps some of the most important questions of our time in biomedical science: (1) do “dark matter” RNAs underlie mechanisms of human disease?; (2) Can they be used for diagnostics?; and (3) Can they be used as targets for therapeutics?. We thus would like to propose a Research Topic in the Frontiers in Genetics/Frontiers in Non-Coding RNAs that is specifically dedicated to publishing manuscripts addressing these three questions.

Fundamentals Of Chromatin

Author : Jerry L. Workman
ISBN : 9781461486244
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30. 53 MB
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​​​​​​​​​​​​​While there has been an increasing number of books on various aspects of epigenetics, there has been a gap over the years in books that provide a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of chromatin. ​Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the genetic material of chromosomes. Its primary function is to package DNA to fit into the cell, to strengthen the DNA to prevent damage, to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control the expression of genes and DNA replication. The audience for this book is mainly newly established scientists ​and graduate students. Rather than going into the more specific areas of recent research on chromatin the chapters in this book give a strong, updated groundwork about the topic. Some the fundamentals that this book will cover include the structure of chromatin and biochemistry and the enzyme complexes that manage it.

Jak Stat Signaling From Basics To Disease

Author : Thomas Decker
ISBN : 9783709108918
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 99 MB
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JAK tyrosine kinases and STAT transcription factors constitute a signaling pathway, which is activated by cytokines. By activating gene transcription it regulates essential biological responses to environmental cues. The Jak-Stat pathway is involved in the regulation of cell development, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Improper function may contribute to hematopoietic malignancies and cancer. This book provides comprehensive insights into the latest basic and clinical developments in the field. The first part reviews recent findings and new technologies pertaining to basics of Jak-Stat function. The second part describes the evolution of Jak-Stat signaling and the role of the pathway in invertebrate organisms. The third part focuses on Jak-Stat signaling in hematopoietic cells under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Finally, chapters in the fourth section describe the relationship of Jak-Stat signaling to various states of disease, particularly infection, leukemias and solid cancers. The book is intended for all scientists in molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology dealing with biomedical issues.

Wnt Signaling In Development And Disease

Author : Stefan P. Hoppler
ISBN : 9781118444153
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 79 MB
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Wnt signaling in Development and Disease: Molecular Mechanismsand Biological Functions reviews the core topics in Wntsignaling, from molecular pathway mechanisms to its role inembryogenesis, adult tissue homeostasis, and chronic disease.Written by a team of expert reviewers, the book provides clear andconcise coverage of the core foundations of Wnt signaling beforeadvancing to discussion of cutting-edge scientific research.Focused on the biological insights and current scientific questionsof Wnt signaling, this book will be a comprehensive and definitiveresource for a wide range of researchers and students in cellsignaling, cell physiology, developmental biology, and biomedicalengineering, as well as anyone interested in learning more aboutthis important and complex protein network. • A definitive source of information on Wnt signalingand its role in development and disease, written by leaders in thefield. • Explores the role of Wnt signaling in chronic diseasesuch as melanoma, colorectal cancer, dementia, and psychiatricdiseases • Reviews the complex processes of signal integrationand regulation • Features broad discussion of Wnt signaling biology aswell as detailed discussion of the pathway’s role in diseasesand potential clinical applications.

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